Impact of IT Change Management on sexual harassment of employee, turnover, job satisfaction and absenteeism: A comparison of developed and developing countries
There has been growing concern regarding the significance of IT Change Management sexual harassment at workplaces (Brue, 2021, Burrell et al., 2021). A vast body of literature has concluded that workplace harassment hurts overall outcomes for work, often due to IT Change Management. The negative impacts include both physical and psychological impacts on female workers. Researchers have suggested that the impact of sexual harassment on women at work leads to problems related to their mental health, their overall commitment to work, their motivation level, and psychological distress, and IT Change Management is part of this process. Another finding suggests that if an organisation’s attitude or culture is deemed hostile, it hurts the productivity of both male and female workers. Any sexual-related traumas or stress that females experience have been argued to have different outcomes in IT Change Management (Cheng, 1999, Deadrick et al., 1996). This is to argue that a woman experiencing sexual harassment in an environment outside the work setting has a lower distress outcome than the distress caused by harassment within a workplace setting. Literature highlights sexual harassment is more common among women than men, however, it has been stressed that both genders experience the same level of negative outcomes in terms of withdrawal, or satisfaction, especially during IT, Change Management. Several negative effects that sexual harassment results in warrants in-depth research to have an in-depth insight into the topic.
2.1 Impact of sexual harassment on job satisfaction
One of the prominent arguments presented on harassment leading to job satisfaction is correlated to country culture and organisational setting during IT Change Management. Findings suggest that sexually harassed women within the United States also experience negative health and psychological impact leading to low job satisfaction during IT Change Management (Hunt et al., 2010, Mishra and Davison, 2020). However, most findings suggest that negativity such as bullying and sexual harassment is relatively lower in the United States than in developing countries such as Pakistan and India. Women experiencing any harassment leads to decreased job involvement and satisfaction when new IT is brought in (Cheng, 1999, Deadrick et al., 1996).
On the other hand, findings have suggested that women from developing countries such as India and Pakistan are often forced to work primarily due to economic reasons. Cultures within developing countries are normally male-dominated. However, it is important to understand that women who strike a perfect balance between and life have increased job satisfaction than the ones that stay at home. Working conditions should be understood as an overriding factor leading to increased job satisfaction during IT Change Management. Women from developing countries generally accept it culturally to be led by male-dominated cultures within the workplace. However, this attitude is slowly faded with women being more vocal about any harassment. In short, findings support the argument that women who are not subjected to sexual harassment have a higher job satisfaction rate both within the developed and developing worlds during IT Change Management.
2.2 Impact of harassment on employee turnover
It is very important to understand the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover, which are deeply rooted in sexual harassment at work, which can increase during the change process (Hunt et al., 2010, Mishra and Davison, 2020). There is an inverse relationship between employee turnover and job satisfaction. Researchers have developed an inverse relationship between job satisfaction, employee turnover, and organisational culture (Salisbury, 1996, Stacy et al., 2021). Organisations face different negative outcomes as a result of sexual agreement. Increased employee turnover resulting from harassment translates to increased organisational costs (Pateli and Giaglis, 2005, Phaal et al., 2006). The intentions of employee turnover in both developed and developing worlds depend on management support from the organisations. American women having lower management support have a higher turnover rate than the ones with higher management support (Salisbury, 1996, Stacy et al., 2021).
2.3 Impact of sexual harassment on employee absenteeism
Employee absenteeism is another important factor related to sexual harassment within workplaces, especially during IT Change Management (Hunt et al., 2010, Mishra and Davison, 2020). The socioeconomic comparison between the developing and developed world have suggested contrasting findings. Developing countries such as India and Pakistan are under huge economic pressure to continue working even after instances of sexual harassment. When women experience sexual harassment, this results in increased employee absenteeism rather than increased turnover. Therefore, employees are forced to go on long leaves due to the stress caused by harassment during the change management process. This has huge implications both for the company and employees. In many instances, employers deduct some chunk of employees’ salaries and increase workloads. Contrasting results argue that in countries such as the US, instances of sexual harassment result in absenteeism and job withdrawals as well. Whereas, countries Pakistan sexual harassment results in employees absenteeism only.
Additionally, it has been found that absenteeism among employees who have experienced any sort of harassment have a relatively increased level of absenteeism as opposed to the ones experiencing a lower level or any form of sexual harassment (Hunt et al., 2010, Mishra and Davison, 2020). Another important factor that is associated with absenteeism is the level of education of employees. For example, employees that have higher education levels, respond more too aggressively to any harassment resulting in increased absenteeism, as compared to an employee with a lower education level (Cheng, 1999, Pateli and Giaglis, 2005).
2.4 Issues of sexual harassment: a multicultural perspective
Working conditions have been counted as a significant factor for developing and developed worlds. Research suggests that developing countries such as Pakistan have poor working conditions, lower employee morale, and lower employment opportunities. Whereas, developed countries such as the US and UK have both well-designed procedures and systems for work ethics, working conditions, and employee rights. Conventionally, developing countries had no legal protection against sexual harassment. Whereas, now many laws have been passed to protect women working in organisations. Anti-sexual harassment laws in developing countries seem to be not implemented because sexual harassment is an accepted norm in Pakistani culture. There are regulatory issues that need to be dealt with serious concern, for sexual harassment cases to reduce in countries like Pakistan (Cheng, 1999, Pateli and Giaglis, 2005).
2.5 Theory of cultural dimension and sexual harassment
One of the ways to look at sexual harassment issues with cross-cultural dimensions is the use of Hofstede’s Theory of Cultural Dimension, which can be related to IT Change Management (Phaal et al., 2006, Salisbury, 1996). The significance of Hofstede’s theory to understand sexual harassment from a cross-cultural perspective is profound. Borrowing from his theory, the attributes such as power distance and individualism/collectivism greatly contributes to the understanding of sexual harassment in different cultures during IT Change Management (Mishra and Davison, 2020, Pateli and Giaglis, 2005). The attribute of power distance explains that the less powerful in a society largely accept the difference in the power structure of society and are more likely to also accept instances of sexual harassment. Another important factor is that cultures that prefer individualistic values are centred towards individual goals which can be increased during the change management process. Take the example of Pakistan, where disparities in power structures are commonly accepted and have a collectivist culture as opposed to individualistic during IT Change Management (Phaal et al., 2006, Salisbury, 1996). Therefore, the tolerance of sexual harassment in Pakistani culture is high, and hence more instances of sexual harassment and vice versa.
This study examines the impact of sexual harassment on factors such as job satisfaction and employee turnover. during IT Change Management It can be concluded that actions need to be taken at the regulatory level when new technology is brought in, where authorities ensure anti-sexual laws are implemented properly and instances, where these happen, be related to punishments.
Culture is concluded to be one of the significant factors, which has varying conclusions for developing and developed worlds. during IT Change Management (Burrell et al., 2021, Hunt et al., 2010). More acceptance and freedom of speed regarding social taboos in developed worlds have implemented anti-harassment laws more effective during the change process. This means that organisations make sure that victims get justice for what they go through by punishing the offender. On the other hand side, there is a huge gap in proliferating awareness of social issues such as sexual harassment and dealing with them appropriately during IT Change Management. For that, the regulatory bodies in Pakistan need to treat such sensitive issues seriously and take necessary strict actions against the offenders (Burrell et al., 2021, Hunt et al., 2010).
It can be argued that multinationals consider the case of sexual harassment at the workplace as a rising serious issue and deal with it at the policy level. Work needs to be done at a strategic level, where organisations ensure awareness of these issues in developing worlds through cross-training programmes during IT Change Management (Cheng, 1999, Mishra and Davison, 2020). Appropriate and targeted sexual harassment training based on cultural factors and the particular needs and sensitivities of employees would be more effective than training based on the flawed assumption that employees have similar backgrounds and values. These strategic policies should be implemented in all the developing worlds they are operating in. it is central to identify countries that have a higher rate of sexual harassment issues and countries that have a high tolerance for such issues that need to be dealt with carefully during IT Change Management process. Firstly, awareness programmes need to be developed in developing countries, where employees are made comfortable about talking any incidences out so that the change management programme can be a success.
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