Essay on Angioedema Due to ACE Inhibitors: Increased Risk in People of Color

Published: 2021/11/04
Number of words: 1637


ACE inhibitor-associated with angioedema was first reported in the 1980s, which has been a potential impact on the people of African origin. However, the major factors attributed to the causes have not been identified despite the many research studies conducted. For instance, the application of ACE inhibitors has increased hypertension and heart failure over the past years. Based on the existing research, clinicians must beware of this complication because it is becoming so severe. There are various ways of maintaining conditions when the cases have been confirmed. For example, registering the patients diagnosed with the disease and having cessation of the patients have been confirmed to help handle the situation. In essence, ACE inhibitors are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension and protection and cardiovascular, renal infections in patients with heart failure and chronic diseases; rare events can result in severe side effects, with angioedema being the most serious but more prevalent to the blacks than in whites.

ACE Inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors play an essential role in both CKD and HF treatment. For instance, they are the best-studied antihypertensive agents so far in the world. The ACEs have been applied in the provision of renal and significant cardiovascular protection for CKD. Guyer & Banerji (2020) research has affirmed that ACEs have been the best remedy for CKD diseases. Thus, they are the only best and recommended way of protecting CKD patients. Besides, they have been applied as first-line drugs for patients with this condition. As such, there are many medical conditions that these drugs have solved. On the other hand, many other widely prescribed drugs have been used by many doctors. More significantly, because they are cheap. For example, Lisinopril is a drug that many doctors have prescribed to heart failure patients. Therefore, both CKD and HF require ACE inhibitors for better and quicker treatment.

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Prevalence of Angioedema in Black Americans

ACE inhibitor-related Angioedema is one of the conditions which is common among African American patients. Various measures have been put in place to maintain the angioedema in the economy of America. Black patients have a higher risk of contracting this condition because of the increased sensitivity towards bradykinin and the racial differences in the kallikrein-kinin system (Asad & Gohar, 2019). However, America’s healthcare system has not developed the fundamental ways of handling the condition because of racial discrimination against black patients. More significantly, the major causes of angioedema-related are hypertension and chronic heart failure problems. The condition is most common among black American women of the elderly age because of their high cases of heart attack and other body conditions. The primary scientific cause has not been outlined, but the significant solutions or treatment methods have impacted the blacks with the condition. Therefore, creating the associated fear in the process of treatment and healing for the blacks.

Angioedema has been a well-known side effect of the treatment of ACE inhibitors for patients with chronic heart failure and hypertension. Although many clinicians have been aware of the impacts of ACE inhibitors on the condition, there has still been no straightforward remedy or treatment for the condition. More significantly, the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARP) has not been defined well by research (Goodwin et al., 2020). The significant impacts of the ACE inhibitors have not been researched well because of the impact on the black American race. Despite the existing growth and advancement in technology, the economy of the USA still has many negative impacts on the equal distribution of healthcare services. The condition can be a life-threatening one when not well managed with medication and regular therapy. More notably, it is a swelling having fluids under the skin; as such, more of the swelling can be risky because of the underlying chronic disease. Therefore, the most affected category of people is those black patients with hypertension and chronic heart failure.

There are many ways of maintaining the angioedema condition among black patients. For instance, creating awareness of the underlying adverse impacts of the condition on human beings is one of the best ways. More significantly, through teaching the black race the causes and effects of the disease on human health, the disease can be managed. Having critical information about the disease will help the clinicians develop more treatment plans of the angioedema condition impacts on the blacks. Research by Çalıkoğlu et al. (2017has affirmed that the essential role of developing a treatment plan for a disease condition is to understand the major causes of the disease. It helps the black understand the need to ask for the second line of drugs which will act more on the condition to ensure they get better. Therefore, the disease can be managed by understanding the significant impacts of the condition and the value of the second line of drugs.

The Manifestation of Angioedema

The manifestation of the angioedema condition affects the patient in many ways. More especially, through the side effects of the conditions to the patients with heart failure problems. The condition comes in many ways, swelling of the mouth, lips, or any other airway. The condition has exposed the patient to numerous chronic conditions because of the underlying causes and diseases that act as risk factors for the condition (Hassan, 2020). Besides, the patients experience a hot and painful impact on the swollen areas of the skin. The patient may also be exposed to breathing problems because of the inner swelling of the trachea and throat. Excess warmth is the primary factor that causes excess pain in the affected areas. The condition is most prevalent among black Americans despite the significant causes of the condition not being identified. Therefore, the condition has been affecting the blacks for a long-time despite the solutions discovered.

The medical scientist has researched and developed major solutions towards the treatment of angioedema condition globally. The use of both the current and ancient airways has been found to treat the condition. More significantly, the upper patency airway acts as the best way of managing and treating the condition. It helps in reducing the swellings as well as making the process of breathing easy. As such, there will not be many struggles with the condition when breathing. Besides, it helps better heal the throat and trachea faster to help the patient recover from such problems. C1 inhibitor concentrate is one of the recommended medications for the condition (Hurley, 2020). The drug helps in the early therapy process of process, more notably by creating a better airway condition for quick recovery and therapy process. Many drugs have been developed recently; however, both the old and current medication works. However, due to drug resistance and other measures, it is recommended that the current medication be applied to treat the condition.

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Cessation of drugs is another major method of treating the condition. ACE inhibitors are the major cause of angioedema condition among black people with heart-related problems. For instance, the inhibitors are the major causes of the existing increased emergency visits in many hospitals in the USA. Research has affirmed that there has been an increased angioedema condition by 40% (Guyer & Banerji, 2020). As such, drug cessation is one of the best-recommended actions to reduce and treat the condition. Patients with this condition will not be exposed to ACE inhibitor drugs. The remedy will help them develop a higher resistance to drugs and other significant side effects. Drug-induced angioedema is the major ACE inhibitor case that has highly impacted many Black Americans’ lives. Despite the existing condition of angioedema, there are others like Visceral edema, which is the major acute abdominal pain during the illness. Therefore, cessation of drugs is the major remedy and treatment plan for patients with angioedema conditions.


ACE inhibitors are the most widely prescribed for treating hypertension and providing cardiovascular and renal protection in patients with heart failure, and CKD cannot be ignored. Some events can cause serious side effects, with angioedema being the most serious but more prevalent in blacks. Many solutions suggest acting as treatment plans such as cessation of drugs and marinating patency airway. By following such essential factors and processes, it becomes easy for the condition to be managed without any challenges. Therefore, angioedema is the most common blacks and can be treated by the methods as mentioned earlier.


Asad, H., & Gohar, A. (2019). Incidence of angiotensin-converting enzyme-associated angioedema among African Americans compared to other races. Chest156(4), A1123.

Goodwin, E., Swenson, C., Busse, L., Tendler, R., Sharifpour, M., VanAcker, C., & Daniels, C. (2020). 943: Angiotensin II use in angiotensin receptor blocker overdose. Critical Care Medicine48(1), 451-451.

Guyer, A. C., & Banerji, M. A. (2020, June 1). ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema. UpToDate. Retrieved July 21, 2021, from

Hassan, K. (2020). Urticaria and angioedema as a prodromal cutaneous manifestation of SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) infection. BMJ Case Reports13(7), e236981.

Hurley, S. (2020). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors). Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine, 116-117.

Çalıkoğlu, E. E., Mullaaziz, D., & Kaptanoğlu, A. (2017). Urticaria and Angioedema treatment. A Comprehensive Review of Urticaria and Angioedema

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