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In the book of Microbiology, nutrition refers to the use of macronutrients and micronutrients for cellular activities in the body. In this regard, organisms require large quantities of macronutrients and small quantities of micronutrients, respectively, according to their role in growth. Macronutrients are responsible for the metabolism and maintenance of cells structures during growth, whereas[…]

Microinquiry 5: Identification of Bacterial Species Summary The text of identification of bacterial species highlighted the major methods used to differentiate one species from the other. The text included three main methods used to achieve this in the lab. These methods are gram staining (that differentiates bacteria based on the structure of their cell walls),[…]

Introduction The interaction between fisheries and marine mammals has spanned a long time now. The interaction between the marine mammals and fisheries is usually classified into either biological (ecological) or operational interactions (Gaichas et al., 2016). Ecological interactions happen when both the marine mammals and the fisheries are competing for the same prey (Winemiler, 2017).[…]

Abstract The necessary micronutrients for plants are manganese, copper, iron, zinc, nickel, and molybdenum. A large amount of them can affect the plant or degrade harvested plant products. In addition, plants do not require other heavy metals such as cadmium, lead, and mercury, which are considered contaminants. When it comes to distribution in aerial plant[…]

Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a stable and relatively constant internal environment. It is crucial for any living thing to maintain a stable internal condition since it must always remain constant. Despite the external environment’s dynamicity, the body employs different physiological strategies that support the system’s proper function. This capability is one of the[…]

Abstract Neisseria meningitidis causes meningitis and/or septicaemia in children and young adults resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Searching of NCBI databases with the term “Factor H binding protein, Neisseria meningitidis” identified two proteins important in N. meningitidis biology: Neisseria surface protein A (nspA) and the porin B (porB). Predicted protein domains of Factor H[…]

Adult tissues are dynamic structures whose maintenance depends on the same process of development as embryos. While stem cells persist indefinitely, many cells live only briefly and must be replenished from new cells. The ultimate source of cells for this renewal process are the stem cells, which are defined by their ability to produce daughter[…]

Introduction In a study from (1998), Gale and Martyn presented research aimed at investigating the validity of Benjamin Franklin’s adage “early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise”. They found no evidence to support any differences between morning and evening people in their measured socioeconomic, health and cognitive variables[…]

Structure and Role in Detoxification One of the fundamental molecules mammalian organisms exploit at the cellular level to protect against potentially toxic exogenous and endogenous compounds is glutathione (γ- glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, or GSH). It is an abundant tripeptide primarily concentrated in the liver at levels of 5mM or more, though it can be found in most[…]

It is a truism that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Therefore it is of interest both clinically and in terms of basic science that increased energy intake (food) in man is not invariably accompanied by commensurate increases in body mass (Jequier and Tappy, 1999). The apparent simplicity of the energy balance equation e.g. ,[…]

1. Introduction Antihistamines are inverse agonists of histaminergic receptors and are commonly used to treat allergic reactions. Histamines are potent inflammatory mediators, which are released from mast cells and basophils upon exposure to allergens. By administering an antihistamine such as chlorphenamine, the binding of histamines to histamine receptors is prevented. As a result, inflammatory signalling[…]

The stem cell phenotype may be defined as cells possessing proliferative potential along with capacity for self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into various lineages. Forming a minority population in a specific tissue, stem cells are maintained in a quiescent state of cell cycle with immediate responses to the signals transmitted by the niche (microenvironment).[…]

Abstract Aims: Low bone mineral density (BMD) has been identified in male endurance athletes with some reports of negative associations with training volume. However, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear. Recent research indicates that energy status and oestrogen (E2) can influence skeletal health. This study investigated relationships between biomarkers of energy availability, sex steroid concentrations[…]

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) LPS is made up of three main regions known as the O-antigen, the core region, and lipid A (Dunn et al., 1991) (figure 1). The O-antigen consists of repeating polysaccharide subunits that are specific for each bacterium, and thus determines its identity. The core region of LPS to which the O-antigen is attached,[…]

Introduction Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) is a process of separating serum proteins according to molecular size and charge, by placing a sample of serum onto agarose gel and applying an electric current. The resulting bands allow classification of serum protein into five different groups: albumin, α1-globulins, α2-globulins, β-globulins and γ-globulins (see figure 1). By analysing[…]

Response of gallbladder strips to CCK-8 The application of CCK-8 to gallbladder strips confirmed that CCK-8 initiates the contraction of gallbladder smooth muscle and that this process is concentration-dependent (Ryan 1981). All the doses of CCK-8, from10-0.05 nM, 100.5 nM, 101.0 nM, 101.5 nM, 102.0 nM to 102.5 nM elicited a contractile response. In each[…]

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