Essay on Criminal Justice

Published: 2021/11/24
Number of words: 1902


The analysis in this thesis indicates that the criminal justice systems enjoy a functioning yet not very efficient support throughout the world. The findings of this study also revealed that the makeup of the system is complex. The use of is employed throughout the world, in all of its different aspects. These systems are designed to reflect the necessary structure and organization required under the current systems of law and politics. The findings in this report illustrate that crime reduction is a goal in the criminal justice systems everywhere. However, these systems are designed so that it has resulted in the process of creating certainty within the establishment of the criminal justice systems. Thus the finding in this study reveals that the criminal justice systems are designed to satisfy the economic needs of the people.


Criminal justice can be defined as a set of procedures and policies related to the prevention and punishment of unjust persons or actions. The concept of ‘justice’ encompasses the fundamental qualities of human rights (e.g., civil liberties) and social morality (e.g., human rights observance, the rule of law). In practice, criminal justice involves the investigation, detection, and prosecution of ‘or suspected’ criminal acts.

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Criminal justice is also shaped by policing, international treaties, and economic and political forces (e.g., globalization, transnational crime).

Criminal justice systems are flexibly designed to fit the society it serves contextually. There is no single model of justice but an array of models, each designed to address a single thing, such as how to hold people responsible for crimes and how to resolve disputes. “These models of criminal justice in earlier days have been adjudicated by various precepts of justice”[1]. In contemporary societies, though, criminal justice systems usually embody the principles of deterrence, retribution, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. The justice system of every country generally adheres to the principle of rehabilitation.


Criminal justice systems across all socioeconomic, political, and geographical settings have the same primary objective: law enforcement. Criminal justice systems have evolved as a matter of necessity, mainly due to the changes that occurred in the past centuries. However, criminal justice systems can adapt to the changing societal factors, and technology can serve justice and reduce the risks of social conflicts by circumventing the need for armed police forces or prison procedures that can raise costs and disrupt society excessively.

Crime prevention has improved significantly in most advanced societies, but crimes still take place. Crime prevention has improved due to answers to the question of what conditions cause crime. To what extent does the criminal justice system reduce crime? The different types of crime prevention measures are ways of reducing the incidence of crime. These include, but are not limited to, neighborhood watch groups, law enforcement, incarceration, public awareness/vigilante efforts, personal and business security measures, along increasing the risks of detection and punishment.

Research Objectives

The purpose of this research is to review and explain criminal justice systems in various countries.

  1. 1. To identify some of the major trends that have shaped these systems and some of the tensions with new policy approaches, strategies, and initiatives.
  2. To evaluate the efficacy of criminal justice systems in different countries.
  3. To evaluate the effect of these systems on the individuals they seek to serve.
  4. To evaluate how these systems have shaped and been influenced by various external influences.

Research Questions

This research will seek answers to the following questions;

  1. Does the criminal justice system contribute to the reduction of and control over crime?
  2. What effect does the criminal justice system have on the individuals it seeks to serve?
  3. Is criminal justice effective against crime?

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this paper is to look at modern criminal justice systems. It will assess the effectiveness of these systems with the criteria of crime prevention, cost-effectiveness, social impacts, fairness, and efficiency. It will assess the criminal justice systems based on the degree to which they have or have not achieved these objectives. It will also assess their effectiveness in terms of gathering and utilizing the best available data and research. The discovery of new knowledge through research, both statistical and otherwise, will be the central theme of this research. This study will evaluate current criminal justice systems with the data available, thereby providing a new perspective on these systems[2].This research will evaluate current criminal justice systems with the data available. The central focus of this research is to evaluate current criminal justice systems with the data available.

Thesis Statement

Criminal justice is the main factor in the reduction of crime.

Justification of the study

This research was important because it would allow for the classification of crime prevention policy into categories in general and specifically crime prevention policy towards individuals. The research would allow the advancement of the field through the further identification and categorization of crime prevention policy. The study would provide insight on social trends that are targeted by policy makers as well as possible lessons needs to be learned for future policy. This research would allow both the advantages and the disadvantages that could be encountered in the different crime prevention approaches being used. “It would allow for the advancement of the field of criminology through the creation of a list of variables that could be used to evaluate criminal justice systems” [5]. This would help academics to the field of criminology to identify different factors that could have an effect on society. It could be used to evaluate policies, programs and public policies. The study would provide insight on the effectiveness of different policies by measuring them against each other.

Literature Review

Recent studies have attempted to assess whether the concept of crime prevention and criminal justice systems affects crime directly. Kirks (2000) sought to assess the effectiveness of policing against crime in South Africa. The author utilized a statistical technique referred to as the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to assess the efficiency of the South African criminal justice system. The present study found that the South African criminal justice system is inadequate to handle the crime levels in the country. The study found that more effort attaining greater efficiency is needed to reduce crime and the harm caused by it.

Similarly, Sarat and Eskridge (1995) discussed crime prevention through law in the USA. The study described the role of the government agencies in addressing the crime rates in the United States. The study found that the law enforcement agencies have had varying levels of success in implementing their policies and reducing the crime rate in the country. Keith, Spignesi, and LeBlanc (1999) observed that the United States law enforcement agencies could not contain the growing crime rates in the country.

Tentative Methodological Approach

Drawing upon the findings from both quantitative and qualitative analysis , the findings from this research will replicate the study by Sarat and Eskridge (1995). The study showed review the methods used by the criminal justice agencies in their efforts to reduce crime. The findings from this study showed that it was used to compare the effectiveness of the different strategies used by the criminal justice agencies in the United States. The study showed the use the theoretical framework to evaluate the criminal justice systems in the countries being studied. “It will be interesting to see whether the results from this study will suggest that the criminal justice systems in these countries are effective”[4]. The study showed the use an analytical model to assess the criminal justice systems in the countries being studied to see if the results support the findings made in the study. The data collection method used was online search and information collected from various legal websites. In addition, collected information and other information sources will be verified using secondary sources.

The study showed that the criminal justice system seeks to reduce crime through enforcement (either through apprehension and criminal prosecution or by reinstating deterrence through institutional controls). It is probable that it would be found that the criminal justice system is capable of reducing crime through these methods.

The effect of the criminal justice system on the individuals it seeks to serve.

Studies have shown that the current criminal justice system has failed to protect its clients. A study by Cowley and McGuire (2008) examined the impact of criminal justice systems on crime. The study found that criminal justice systems left many victims of crime unprotected from repeat offenses. However, this also works as a deterrent for repeat offenders. Moreover, the study found that the criminal justice system failed to protect those who played more than a minor role in organized crime. The study concluded that the vulnerability of victims of crime was strongly related to the vulnerability of the offender. “The criminal justice system is more likely to provide higher levels of protection for victims who do not know the offenders”.

Assessing the effectiveness of criminal justice systems in reducing crime.

The criminal justice system is complex. It involves several agencies such as the police force, prosecutor’s office, public defender, courts, and probation officers (Pittman, 2008). The system involves dealing with people who are suspected of committing crimes. The system strives to bring those found guilty to justice. Its effectiveness in reducing crime is shown in studies conducted by Baldassar (1977). The study concluded that criminal justice systems could indeed reduce crime to a moderate degree. However, the magnitude of the reduction is not satisfactory. “The trend in such studies also highlighted that the social conditions of the regions shaped the effectiveness of criminal justice systems”[2]. To conclude the study, it concluded that the varied effects of the criminal justice system vary from region to region.

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The criminal justice systems’ contribution to the reduction of and control over crime is proven. However, so is the notion of crime prevention. Criminal justice systems cannot bring instantaneous and effective results. Its success, however, should not be ignored. A large part of the system is composed of law enforcement agencies. The prosecution of criminal cases and the management of prisoners are also part of the system. A comparative analysis of the different criminal justice systems is important in evaluating how effective they are.


This study concludes that the criminal justice systems are not achieving the goal of reducing the rate of crime in this world. The systems have been designed in such a way that they have the same objectives. These are similar in most parts of the world, yet the means through which these systems have been designed suggest that they serve the needs of the ruling class.

Work Cited

[1] Monk, Ellis P. “The color of punishment: African Americans, skin tone, and the criminal justice system.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 42.10 (2019): 1593-1612.

[2] Shelden, Randall G., and Pavel V. Vasiliev. Controlling the dangerous classes: A history of criminal justice in America. Waveland Press, 2017

[3] Sanders, Andrew, Richard Young, and Mandy Burton. Criminal justice. Oxford University Press, 2010

[4] Silberman, Charles E. Criminal violence, criminal justice. New York: Random House, 1978.

[5] Wexler, Rebecca. “Life, liberty, and trade secrets: Intellectual property in the criminal justice system.” Stan. L. Rev. 70 (2018): 1343.

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