Essay on Behavioural Parent Training
Number of words: 2143
This aspect is also tagged as parent management training. It simply refers to training of parents in order to change their behaviors and styles of parenting. This program of treatment on parents is aimed at reinforcing positive aspects of improving behaviors of pre-school and school going children (Preece, 2014).
Parents through such training methods are able to assist their children in dealing with various behavioral problems. Children are able to deal with problems such as hyperactivity, aggression and temper flare-ups. Apart from improving the behavior of children, parents benefit from improvement of their mental status. Children gain by benefiting from a reduction in destructive behaviors (Preece, 2014). The process of training parents has its advantages and disadvantages in equal measure. One of the disadvantages is the lack of knowledge of the program. Parents might also not participate fully on the program affecting its outcome.
This program was developed in the year 1960 after a scholar took studies on the influence of changing children destructive behavior and parents’ behavior. The program comes on the heels of applied behavioral sciences and operant conditioning. According to the program, training may take several months. In these months parents will utilize their personality in enforcing positive behavior. Parents have the pleasure of rewarding their children through provision of gifts and other rewards. On the other hand punishment may be instituted through omission of attention. For the program to take place certain limits have to be set (Preece, 2014).
Today’s society has to deal with various issues as a result of poor behavior conduct. There has been an increase in crime rates, drug related crimes and other destructive behaviors. This influence has huge repercussion on the government, parents and the society in general. Governments have to use billions of dollars to construct correctional facilities and parents have to institute measures for dealing with destructive behaviors. Such negative behavior is a result of lack of parenting supervision, parental mental status, and substance abuse by parents and lack of consistent discipline. It has been recorded that negative parenting practices contributes to negative behavior (Preece, 2014).
When a parent utilizes negative practices on their children contributes to a coercive –cycle where the child responds with a negative behavior. A child my respond while shouting to a parent in respond to not wanting to do certain chores. In response the parent might make the shouting louder thus the child responds with higher pitch. Coercion might be a trigger for negative behavior in children (Hoofdakker et al 2014). Instead of institution negative behavior by parents, behavioral parent training focuses on training parents on reinforcing positive behaviors.
Behavioral parent training depends on various techniques and skills. The training methods vary from person to person and according to the situation. Parents are advised to monitor and record children behavior. By having a record of their children, parents are able to notice changes on their children behavior. The monitoring information is important for therapist. It assist therapist to set treatment programs and goals for effective treatment (Preece, 2014). As a result of the strategy parents will be able to communicate with their children using eye contact. Parents further learn to communicate with their children in a calm manner.
Through this training program parents are able to reinforce positive aspects on children. Parents get the knowledge on how to reward children using various social rewards. Hugs, smiles and other techniques are important in reinforcing positive behaviors (Hoofdakker et al 2014). The other method of reward parents might use to positive reward is using concrete rewards. The other method of rewarding behavior is providing rewards in a progressive manner. A child might be rewarded according to their initial aspect but such rewards need to lead to a higher reward. Behavioral parent training provides parents with a platform to setting structured techniques. Parents understand how to deal with either positive or negative reinforcements. For example mildly annoying behavior could be ignored by parents. Further unwanted behavior by children could be dealt with removing attention. From the program, parents are able to understand how to remove certain privileges (Shayne& Miltenberger, 2013). Removing of privileges such as watching television and playing time to punish negative behavior instill discipline. Therapists further argue that utilizing such techniques needs to be applied immediately and in a calm nature.
Consequently, such techniques should not be utilized at home alone. Parents need to incorporate their strategies with that of teachers in school. To actually meet the goal of the program, teachers need to record children behavior in school. The program further assist parents manage behavior problems in public places. Behavioral parent training is offered to family members and parents as opposed to children in question. The program includes 12 unit courses. These units take a weekly format that might lead to 24 weekly courses in total. Behavioral parent training has various advantages to parents and in children behaviors (Shayne& Miltenberger, 2013).
Strengths of Behavioral Parent Training
One of the benefits of behavioral parent training is the Increase of desirable behavior by children. The training program focuses on offering training to parents. Therapists have the task of training parents on how to detect negative behavior on their children. By detecting behavioral problems parents are able to develop various strategies in disciplining children. Parents are able to utilize from various strategies to punishing their children. Studies show that training parents has an impact on to reducing negative behavioral problems. The reduction of negative behaviors on children might take various years. But its positive implications will be felt in a child through their adulthood. It is also important to note that this training might be a solution to attention deficit problems. It also answers other problems felt in a majority of children such as bed-wetting. Research finding reveals that behavioral training assists in dealing with depression, anxiety, autism and developmental problems.
The training program is important in reducing children misbehavior. Studies reveal that training of parents has the implication of reducing misbehavior. Therapists recognize that parents are the most important factors in the development of children. Therefore there is a need for parents to have skills of therapists (Preece, 2014). Training sessions may be done to individual parent or groups of individuals. Parents are taught to observe the behavior of their children. Observing their children is essential to assisting parents develop strategies in handling misbehavior. Parents are taught to understand the leading causes of their misbehavior.
Through having an understanding of the events, parents are able to view the future of their children in terms of behavior. Parents further receive various skills and techniques in dealing with their children behavior. Specific skills are taught to parents during such programs. These skills include positive attention, provision of rewards, ignoring and use of reprimands (Hoofdakker et al 2014). Through these techniques children are removed from the pleasures of the moment. The method of punishment by withdrawing prevents a child from getting attention and rewards.
The other advantage of the training method is the improvement of parent child interaction. There are positive changes of interaction between parent and child. The positive interactions are enhanced by the improvement of parents’ language and parenting skills. Behavioral parent training provides the front for relationship enhancement (Shayne& Miltenberger, 2013). Relationship enhancement is child directed. This technique assists in the improvement of the bond between parent and child. Interaction is felt by the use of reinforcement techniques. The skills to be utilized include the use of praise.
Studies reveal that praise increases positive behavior. Reflection is another method where a parent recognizes communication from children improving their self esteem. The other advantage of behavioral parent training is to bring positive family atmosphere. Through this training parents will be able to monitor behavioral progress of their children. Through this monitoring parents will be able to initiate corrective measures that might improve interaction. Parents will be able to deal with behavioral aspects of their children. By improving children behavior family members will interact peacefully. Through training, parents will be able to communicate effectively with their children. The improvement of communication is effective in instituting relationship between family members.
Limitations of Behavioral Parent Training
In the implementation of the behavioral parent training, cost of the program may be a limitation. In respect to the program, therapist’s services may be sought at a fee. This is seen as a hindrance to implementation of the program in all family settings. Certain families might not be able to afford the amount payable to therapist, making the program not to capture a wider population in the nation. Culture is also another hindrance to the implementation (Hoofdakker et al 2014). Certain culture prohibits certain interaction between parents and children and historical facts about a certain community may have an influence on the implementation of the training program.
For the program to be effective there is the need for the involvement of both parents. However during the training sessions one of the parents might be missing. This exclusion of one parent or both parents have negative effects on the efficiency of the training program. Studies reveal that mothers often carry huge burdens from children with behavioral problems (Preece, 2014). On the other hand fathers tend to share parenting with other parties. Therefore, there is a need to include fathers during training.
The setting of the training program has an effect on the implications of the programs. For example a training program set in a university clinic tends to capture the needs of middle class individuals. Such a setting in the long run omits the needs of lower class citizens. Studies also reveal that almost 75% of children being diagnosed for behavioral problems receive medication. These children use stimulants during their therapy. It is not understood whether the stimulants have an impact on the diagnosis. It is not known if the stimulants have an influence on the behavior of children (Preece, 2014). Further, it is not true that from such diagnosis those children get better.
Children might revert back to their problems once the stimulants run out of their bodies. Nevertheless, such treatment needs to be rated on a long-term effects. Behavioral parent training focus on short term period however long-term report is needed. Another limitation to the training may include parents with serious mental disorders and other influences. Such parents might have instances of hallucinations and other irritability influences that might affect the whole training. Sexuality abusive parents and those with substance abuse issues might have an influence on the implementation of the program.
Behavioral parent training is a program which assists parents manages their children behavioral problems. Although the process concentrates on children, their inclusion is ignored with huge concentration on their parents. Specific skills are taught to parents during such programs. These skills include positive attention, provision of rewards, ignoring and use of reprimands. Through these techniques children are removed from the pleasures of the moment. The method of punishment by withdrawing prevents a child from getting attention and rewards.
The program is based on children with serious behavioral issues however it ignores influences of parents with behavioral issues. Parents with problems of sexual exploitation, substance abuse, parents with less intellectual abilities and mental problems take part in the training program. While other forms of treatments focus on a particular party, this method focus on providing treatment for both parent and child (Preece, 2014). The program is focused on improving the behaviors of both parent and child. Through such training children are able to avoid the impact of physical abuse and coercive cycle of abuse. The program further, focuses on influences affecting diverse families.
Through the program families interact effectively parent and child are able to handle their problems. In these months parents will utilize their personality in enforcing positive behavior. Parents have the pleasure of rewarding their children through provision of gifts and other rewards. On the other hand punishment may be instituted through omission of attention (Preece, 2014). For the program to take place certain limits have to be set. The live coaching influence of the program focus on providing skills those are effective in managing their children behavioral problems. Parents get to learn how to reinforce behavior while setting limits for the programs. Such programs nurture family interactions and provide formidable environment.
Preece, D 2014. ‘Providing training in positive behavioural support and physical interventions for parents of children with autism and related behavioural difficulties’, Support For Learning, 29, 2, pp. 136-153, Professional Development Collection, EBSCOhost, viewed 8 November 2016.
Hoofdakker, B, Hoekstra, P, Veen-Mulders, L, Sytema, S, Emmelkamp, P, Minderaa, R, & Nauta, M 2014. ‘Paternal influences on treatment outcome of behavioral parent training in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder’, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23, 11, pp. 1071-1079.
Shayne, R, & Miltenberger, R 2013. ‘Evaluation Of Behavioral Skills Training For Teaching Functional Assessment And Treatment Selection Skills To Parents’, Behavioral Interventions, 28, 1, Pp. 4-21.