Question & Answer

Published: 2021/12/17
Number of words: 1743

1. Identify and explain in DETAIL the five parts of our second line of defense (Internal defenses). Be sure to include the three basic steps of the inflammatory response, EXPLAINING each including the characteristics of inflammation.

Phagocytosis, interferon, complement protein, inflammation, and fever are the five parts of our second line of defense (Internal defenses). Phagocytes utilize phagocytosis to ingest bacteria, foreign particles, and dying cells to defend the body. Pathogens entangle with them and are internalized in phagosomes, which coalesce and acidify with lysosomes to damage the contents. They are a significant portion of the innate immune system. Phagocytes are classified into three types: granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes, and dendritic cells, each with unique physiological functions.

Interferons refer to a different collection of immune signaling pathways that play a critical role in the defense against pathogens. Cells infected with viruses generate and discharge type I interferons. These interferons cause nearby cells to stop producing mRNA, destroy previously produced RNA, as well as minimize protein production. These cellular changes impede viral replication and infectious viral production, weakening the virus’s propagation. Type I interferons also stimulate various macrophages involved in viral clearance to fight virus-infected cells vigorously. Type II interferon is an effective immune cell activator.

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The complement protein is composed of many unique plasma proteins that interact to opsonize pathogens and stimulate a series of systemic inflammation that aid in infection resistance. Many complement proteins are proteases that are induced by proteolytic cleavage. Zymogens are enzymes that are found in the gut. For instance, the pancreatic enzyme pepsin is accumulated in cells and ingested as an inactive precursor enzyme, pepsinogen, that is only severed to pepsin in the acid conditions of the stomach (Liu et al., 2021). The benefit to the host of not being autodigested is undisputable.

Inflammation is a decentralized tissue reaction that happens in reaction to tissue impairment and other impulses. Inflammation attracts more white blood cells to the area where pathogens have infiltrated. Redness, heat, swelling, and pain are all signs of an inflammatory response. An inflammatory response is triggered when a pathogen increases blood flow to the site of infection. Blood arteries dilate in that place, enabling white blood cells to seep out and penetrate injured tissue. Phagocytes are capable of engulfing and damaging germs. In the course of an inflammatory reaction, the part becomes red, swollen, and aching. Whenever a virus enters the body, the immune system could produce chemicals that raise the body’s temperature, ensuing in a fever. A high temperature of the body impedes or prevents pathogen development and helps the immune reaction.

Three basic steps of the inflammatory response include chronic, sub-acute, and acute. There is apparent redness (erythema) and swelling throughout the acute inflammatory stage due to vascular alterations. The release of cells and substances causes swelling and discomfort. A haematoma can occur when there is bleeding inside the tissues. Secondly, chemical allergens are counterbalanced, and the part is encased from nearby tissues, impairing movement. The sub-acute stage marks the beginning of repair and regeneration. Toxic chemicals are also counteracted, and new blood capillaries grow into affected parts, supported by collagenous tissue growth (collagen fibers) and forming granulation sprouts. Observable signs of inflammation begin to fade, and the range of motion improves, accompanied by physical pain at the point of tissue rigidity. The chronic inflammatory phase is when tissue redesigning occurs. There are no indications of inflammation, and tissue is maturing. Subsequently, tissue resistance is attained, and pain is felt more into the range of motion. Maturation involves transforming fibroblasts into fibrocytes, whereas redesigning denotes the organization and shrinkage of collagen fibers along stress lines.

Fever raises body temperatures, causing heat-shock proteins to stimulate and suppress bacteria load and transmission. Prostaglandins could also help increase the body temperature, resulting in fever, which fosters the activity of white blood cells while inhibiting the growth of microbial pathogens slightly.

2. IDENTIFY and EXPLAIN the five antibody actions.

Immune regulation, through the placenta, binding Fc receptors, activation of complement, and binding of the corresponding antigen are antibody actions. To bind the antibody, the hypervariable area of the antibody and the antigenic determinants of the three-dimensional structure should be coherent, and the antigen-binding is extremely specific. Antibody cells that bind antigen particularly can moderate a wide range of physiological and pathological impacts in vivo. Antibody and antigen-binding via non-covalent bonds are transient, and electrolyte concentration, PH, temperature, and antibody structure integrity can all influence antibody and antigen-binding capacity.

The structure of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgM antibody molecules changes when they bind to the appropriate antigen. The reaction of the complement binding spot, either CH2 of IgM or CH2 of IgG, binds to Clq, activating the complement system via the conventional pathway (Sedykh et al., 2016). Whenever IgG molecules bind to the appropriate antigen, at least two immediately neighboring IgG molecules are required to activate complement. Additional Ig molecules, including IgG4 and IgA clumps, activate complement via other mechanisms.

After connecting to the appropriate antigen via the V region, Ig can attach to a wide range of cell surface Fc receptors via the Fc segment and trigger various effector activities.

IgG is the single form of Ig transmitted from the mother to fetus via the placenta. The immunity gained by the fetus in this way is known as ordinarily acquired immunity. According to research, maternal IgG can be transferred to the fetus by attaching to the homologous receptor on the surface of the placenta trophoblast—FcR.

Antibodies have both a negative and positive regulatory influence on immune response, and they participate in immune activation through the unique and anti-unique kind of network. The five biological activities of antibodies are as follows: certain function with the antigen, complement activation, attachment of Fc receptors and transplacental, and immunoregulation. Monoclonal antibodies are extremely uniform antibodies generated by a single B cell clone and exclusively bind to particular antigenic epitopes. In contrast, polyclonal antibodies are composite antibodies that activate multiple types of monoclonal antibodies generated by different epitopes.

3. IDENTITY and EXPLAIN the four types of allergic reactions.

Cell-mediated, immunocomplex, cytotoxic and anaphylactic reactions are types of allergic reactions. Cell-mediated responses are sometimes known as allergic reactions or delayed hypersensitivity since they happen at least 24 hours after exposure to the allergen. Proteins, such as IgM and IgG antibodies, also cause immunocomplex responses. These antibodies produce immunocomplexes when they react with the allergen. IgM and IgG antibodies are proteins that produce cytotoxic responses. Type II antibodies cause cell damage by stimulating a component of immunity known as the complement system. The immune system produces proteins known as IgE antibodies, which cause anaphylactic reactions. These are generated as a reaction to allergens, including pollen, animal dander, dust mites, or specific foods. This triggers histamine as well as other chemicals to be released, resulting in swelling and inflammation.

4. Explain the parts of the RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE and explain how and direction that the oxygen moves through it (identifying the order that it passes through).

The basement membrane, capillary wall, and alveolar wall are parts of the respiratory membrane. An alveolar wall comprises a sole layer of category I alveolar cells, a capillary lining composed of a single coating of endothelial cells, and a common basement tissue between them. Since both type I alveolar cells and endothelium cells are columnar and thin, the respiratory membrane is around 0.5 mm thick, allowing gases to pass easily. The respiratory membrane permits gases to pass through via simple diffusion, enabling oxygen to be taken up by the blood for transportation and carbon dioxide to be discharged into the alveolar air. The respiratory system is in charge of acquiring oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the body.

5. List in order the parts that food passes through, beginning with the mouth through the anus. Be very specific, including all valves (sphincters). Remember, some areas have parts example pharynx.



Lower esophageal sphincter


Small intestine

Large intestine



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6. IDENTIFY and EXPLAIN the functions of the liver, be SPECIFIC and not just list.

Storage, synthesis, and detoxification are the significant functions of the liver. The liver is a proper filter that recovers and removes numerous toxins. Toxins can be found naturally in the bodies’ waste, such as ammonia, or in foods and beverages humans consume, such as alcohol. The liver ensures the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins while generating bile, a vital component of human digestion. The liver also uses the coagulation mechanism to prevent hemorrhages. The liver stores vitamins A, D, E, and K and glycogens (carbohydrates), which means it stores energy in the form of sugar and makes it accessible to the body when required. When the liver breaks toxic chemicals, the byproducts are excreted in the bile or blood. Byproducts of bile permeate the gut and exit the body as feces. The kidneys filter out blood byproducts, which then exit the body as urine.

7. IDENTIFY all enzymes and other products that act within the small intestines. STATE where they come from, the SUBSTRATE they act on, and the PRODUCTS they produce BE VERY SPECIFIC) also include how and where these final products (building unite) are absorbed.

Lipase, protease, and amylase are enzymes that act within the small intestines. Proteases degrade proteins; lipases degrade lipids, and amylase aids in carbohydrate digestion. Amylase and protease are enzymes that are generated in the pancreas, salivary glands, and small intestine. The small intestine and pancreas generate lipase. Ptyalin, a kind of amylase created in the salivary glands, commences working on carbohydrates in mouth. The pancreas generates pancreatic amylase that is delivered to the small intestine. It subsequently degrades starch into sugars that other enzymes converts them into glucose. This is then engrossed in the circulation via the small intestine’s lining. Pancreatic enzymes are activated when protein molecules reach the small intestine. Lipids provide several functions, comprising long-term energy storage.


Liu, F., Zhou, J., Luo, X., Liu, Y., Huang, C., He, X., & Wang, Y. (2021). A point-of-care chemiluminescence immunoassay for pepsinogen I enables large-scale community health screening. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 1-8.

Sedykh, S. E., Lekchnov, E. A., Prince, V. V., Buneva, V. N., & Nevinsky, G. A. (2016). Half molecular exchange of IgGs in the blood of healthy humans: chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins containing HL fragments of antibodies of different subclasses (IgG1–IgG4). Molecular BioSystems12(10), 3186-3195.

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