Essay on World Civilization to 1500

Published: 2021/12/06
Number of words: 1423

The emergence of the hunter-gatherer concept as an independent type of society is closely related to the term “unilinear” or “state.” Economic and technological criteria were widely used in the late 19th century to classify the many diverse world populations into general patterns. This perspective of cultural diversity is based on several deep assumptions: foraging is seen as an essentially inferior way of life, and hunters and gatherers were seen as the conceptual “basis” for overall development, while Western civilization is seen as an essentially inferior way of life.

The culmination of culture, technology, and culture. This is accompanied by the implicit belief that hunters and gatherers are relatively simple, with no internal innovation or cultural complexity. Societies did develop, but not in hunter-gatherer groups that were generally believed to be culturally extinct and trapped in the early stages of ancient cultural development. Forestry turned into extensively utilized as a meal manufacturing machine in lots of components of the sector at some stage in this period (Larsen, 2021). Many woodland parks had been created in prehistoric instances alongside forested riverbanks and on humid hills. As increasingly more households step by step expands around them, beneficial tree and vine species are identified, covered, and improved, and unwanted species are eliminated. Over time, the maximum brought types had been decided on and planted withinside the garden. As the variety and length of farming groups increased, they moved to lands usually utilized by hunters and gatherers (Rose & Allen, 2018). This method of agricultural growth caused the formation of the primary varieties of authorities in agricultural establishments which include the Fertile Crescent, Ancient India, Ancient China, Olmec, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Norte Chico.

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In the Upper Paleolithic, the unfold of Homo sapiens in Eurasia and the simultaneous diffusion of blade generation are the principal barriers to using modern culture, however, those are best the broadest technological variables. During the Upper Palaeolithic, there may be growing proof of recent varieties of social and monetary relationships, however best in a few looking groups. This early improvement seems to have increased and unfold with the onset of the Holocene. The modifications in social family members appear to be as compared with simultaneous seems at different technologies, economies, and cultures (Gowdy, 2020). In the Upper Paleolithic, maximum of those tendencies appear to have focused on corporations of hunters amassing regions complete of snow gardens and wealthy in megafauna. Many of those websites incorporate early symptoms and symptoms of sizable use, cave paintings, sedentary and seasonal. There also are preliminary indicators of significant inequalities in private and own circle of relative’s wealth, which include the burial of vintage and young (Kidder, et al., 2017). The later levels of the Upper Paleolithic display growth with the inside of furnishings and different crucial objects.

The earliest civilizations had been constructed at the banks of rivers, famous examples from historic Egypt at the Nile, Mesopotamia at the moon with inside the Fertile Crescent at the Tigris / Euphrates, historic China at the Yellow River, and historic India at the Indus. This first civilization existed from the time of the Neolithic Revolution around 12,000 BC. Chr. Nature. The rivers had been a famous enchantment for historic peoples due to the fact they often furnished ingesting water and made the soil fertile for agriculture (Earnshaw, 2017). In addition, items and those couldn’t be without problems transported, and the humans of this civilization may want to fish and hunt many animals that got here to drink water. In addition, the ones misplaced within inside the desolate tract can go back to civilization via way of means of taking walks alongside the river, wherein the principle populace facilities are concentrated.

Question 2

The first civilizations arose in places where geography favored intensive agriculture. In ancient civilizations, geography influenced them in various ways such as the climate, the resources, and the geography they used. The weather hit them as they were often offended by the rainy season which brought heavy rains and winds to the area. The mountains offered them protection against invasions, but the mountains were also used to exchange needed resources with others.

All these civilizations grew up where they grew up, not because the people who lived near the river were much civilized than in other areas, but because of the geography of the area. These large freshwater rivers are many good sources of water and food, as seasonal floods provide fertile land for cultivation. With the ability to grow, produce excess food, and have water, you don’t have to move from place to place in search of resources. In addition, without spending every minute of the day looking for food, older people can participate in more enjoyable activities such as reflecting on life (e.g. religion) and develop plans and methods for their relationship with them, such as civilization and religion (Rose & Allen, 2018). These ancient rivers and geography didn’t necessarily lead to the birth of civilization, but they certainly determined where it happened.

This principle can be applied to almost any time in the history and development of civilization. Just look where the major cities in the United States are. The United States of America started as a series of British colonies, and their colonial economy was based primarily on trade with Britain and other parts of the British Empire. As a result, many major cities in the eastern United States are located by the sea (which provides a major port) or another major waterway (Meshkani & Razaviyan, 2021). For example, New York, Boston, Charleston, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and others are located on the Atlantic Ocean or waterways with easy access to the high seas. Inland cities such as Chicago and Detroit are also located on wide waters with access to shipping routes.

In ancient Greece, they used much of their geography to help them become the civilization they wanted to be. Mountains help them to be isolated and separated from other city-states, making them more independent. They used the Mediterranean to farm and provide additional crops, but they became skilled sailors and developed extensive trade networks to trade with others (Coscioni, 2020). The weather is always warm and dry, which sometimes affects plant growth at this time of year.

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Ancient Egypt used the Nile and the Sahara to their advantage in many ways. Ancient Egypt was divided into two distinct states, the black state, and the red state. Black soil is the fertile land created by the Nile, and red soil is the Egyptian desert. They used the Nile for the fertile land left over after the river was not flooded so that they could use this fertile land for agriculture. They also use the Nile to fish, washcloths and sometimes trade necessary resources with others. The Sahara was used to protect itself from other invading armies (Lopes & Almeida, 2017). The weather is always warm and very dry; which makes farming very difficult when you live in the desert.

Human settlements and cultural development are determined by areas such as mountains, deserts, and water. Other factors that contribute to cultural development are climate, location, environment, water resources, and natural resources. The geography of China contributed to the development of the earliest civilizations because the river areas that cut crops and livestock were the first Chinese to be able to produce.


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