Essay on Project Management Process
Number of words: 3946
Project management is a tool used to ensure maximum utilization of goods and resources available to achieve specific goals of a project. The main objective of this paper is to show how project management plays an important role in ensuring the project in question succeeds. It also points out the risks that are likely to be encountered and how who can manage them. This is important since it helps the project manager to plan and strategies.
The business has shifted from local to global. As a result of this, there is increased competition among the companies. There is a need for any company to increase and develop new systems to meet the competing environment. Project management is applied to ensure the organization meets its goals within the budget and minimizes the costs while meeting the customers’ expectations. The project manager must look into risks that a project is likely to face and factors that will ensure the project succeeds.
Project Management Process
The company can use various methodologies, and the results are always a success, provided the rules set out by the methodology are followed appropriately. In this project, we consider the kanban methodology. The reason for choosing this methodology is because it carries the best outlines. As a result, an adequate workforce is achieved by following the processes outlined in the methodology. Kanban is adopted procedurally and is employed by employment. The main aim of Kanban is to determine setbacks that are likely to disrupt the management process and correct them to achieve a good flow of the process.
The goal of this methodology is to ensure the company produces only enough to avoid waste of resources. Producing more than what is required will amount to a waste of resources. At first, Kanban was developed by the senior management to avoid inefficiency, and inadequate production of Toyota Company compared to other American rivals. Kanban methodology controls the whole chain from the procedure to the consumer. This methodology perfectly increases efficiency in the company’s reliability and flexibility since it can easily adjust to the outstanding conditions in the market. It also requires the attention of the whole process to achieve a required aim.
Firure 1.Kenboard system
Figure 1.2 Kanboard
Kanban methodology ensures that members in a company access information easily. It is suitable because it is easy to understand, and it ensures a good workflow in the system that is already established. The method is also good because it increases efficiency and effectiveness quickly, helps in easy prioritization of activities, and is good in planning within the company. Since the methodology presents visualization, it cooperates efficiently with the tools of managing workflow.
This methodology minimizes the waste of resources since it is effective in the utilization of the available resources. In the case of human resources, this methodology can determine the right people working on their respective perfect job and in a good way. From this, there is an effective use of human resources within the company. To use Kanban successfully, one must implement some principles. Another importance of this methodology is that it can identify non-active members in the company and easily identify an expensive process to avoid it.
One of the principles of this methodology is, ensuring respect to the system that the current members are using and their roles in the company. Poor management of resources is avoided in this methodology because the end goal is to ensure the extra production of goods for a proper and easy flow of the process, which should emphasize communication among the workforce. The methodology ensures this is achieved. It maintains that any employee is required to alert the other about any move they make. The workforce can achieve effective communication by categorizing it into three parts done, still doing, and not done. This will alert the rest of the employees on what to do.
Another principle is emphasizing incremental change rather than radical change on the existing setup. The reason for this is to avoid opposition by the workforce and the organization. Continuous improvement will be realized in various levels of the company as a result of this. Performance is improved by ensuring members are encouraged to express their views and give their ideas.
If this process is followed effectively, there are high chances of completing the project earlier and no wastage of resources. The project groups should have deliverables to ensure there is effective completion of the projects. There is a need to clearly outline technical problems that are likely to be encountered during the process. The plan should also outline the progress to prepare the comparison to incase of any occurrence.
Effective completion is achieved by ensuring the plan should clearly outlining the timelines. The time project starts to the completion of the project. Also, the plan should propose the costs of the project. If the company puts these deliverables in place, it would be easy to complete the project because it has a clear scope. If a project manager needs to change some of the things on the methodology, there is a clear process that they are supposed to follow. The first step to be followed is initiation. This will give a clue to the members about the change and help them prepare to adapt to the change.
Planning follows initiation. In planning, the manager must write down the steps to be followed in the new initiative—some of the things they should not down include a budget and the need for new employees. The new initiative might require a change in budget allocation and more skilled labor to achieve the new objective. Effective planning will ensure there is a smooth process in achieving the new goal. After planning, execution follows. This is to ensure every department in the company adheres to the new change. In this stage, the management sets the ground for implementing the change by giving the workforce mandates and whatever is required to achieve the initiative. After the senior management reaches an agreement, then it is executed.
In addition, the project scope is required. Project scope ensures that the project is completed on time and within the allocated budget. The project groups need to research the fields they choose. There are risks involved in making certain decisions in business; therefore, the research should include them. The research should also include the following, problems that are likely to be encountered in venturing the business, the amount of capital required in case of any changes in the company, and lastly, the policies to be used to achieve the main goal of the company. (Jovanovic,et.al,2018)
Also, the research should be in a position to identify competitors and how competitors manage to achieve their set goals. This will give the company an overview of how others work and give them ideas on what new methods t use to achieve efficiency and maximum production in the company.
There is a need for the project group to visit a consulting firm. From this, they can write a report about the findings and some of the things the company is doing wrongly. They can now strategize on how to improve from their findings. From the findings, the company will follow the right path in achieving the objectives and ensure the company is satisfied from the consultation.
After completing the research and writing of the report, the company would then draft a conclusion from the research and areas that they need to improve on to ensure the company’s success. All the company sectors are required to carry out this research, the finance department, management sectors, and the workforce sector. From this, the company will easily identify specific problems affecting specific departments. In this case, we use a divisional system where different teams working on specific areas must provide detailed information from their specified areas. (Müller,et.al 2019). The final result is then presented to the consulting; the final report should have clear methods and policies to improve the company’s production. With the new deliverables being put in place, the company will have a clear scope of what is required to guarantee the project’s success.
Nonetheless, when the project manager needs to review some of the parts of the methodology and see through its implementation, clear steps need to be followed. Among the factors that the project manager should look into are the financial requirements. This is to make sure that the changes will not alter the budget plan considering the complexity of the project that they are to implement and ensure that the proposed changes will not negatively impact the organization’s work. The other important factor is the political environment. The project manager should check that the policies they intend to implement align with the government of the day policies. The other important factors that the project manager needs to look into before implementing the changes include the size of the change. It is important to consider the size of the change. Big changes take a considerable amount of time before they are fully implemented and thus will slow the organization’s currently running projects. The project manager should also consider the existing relationships between clients and other parties. The change should serve the purpose of creating more unity between them and their clients; additionally, the project manager should be aware of the penalties that come with the implementation of the changes and that they don’t limit the company negatively.
We should also consider the impact of the change on other projects. With the change projected to result in major changes in other projects, the timing of other projects will be affected, leading to significant delays or even terminations of the running projects, thus raising the case of poor project management. Nonetheless, if all factors are according to plan, the last step will be to test if the company can withstand change. If the company is not capable of withstanding the changes, it will be negatively impacted. Therefore, after the series of tests and it is concluded that the company cannot handle change, outside assistance needs to be reported.
The initial step would be to introduce the changes that need to be implemented. This is a crucial step because it allows people affected by the change to reflect and adapt. The next step would be to planning for the change. This step would require the project manager to draft the steps that are to be followed. This is to include the budget if it exists, the areas that need the change, the amount of change included in the new plan, and if there is a need for any new personnel. When planning, it is important to track the progress as it is important in achieving the desired goal. The next step is the execution of the plan. Execution involves setting the plan in motion and ensuring that each department follows the management stipulated changes. The management should set the stage for implementing the changes and ensure that all the members understand what is expected of them. The execution-only starts after the senior management give it the green light to proceed. The project manager is the overall manager of the project, and they are to ensure that all the changes that are made are to be followed by the task force and rectify any mistake that may arise. Therefore, a good project manager should have their work arranged in terms of priority. This will help in keeping track of the important parts that need to be implemented without any delay. (Weflen,et.al 2021).
In arranging the work in criticality, the best method is the Moscow prioritization method.M stands for must-have. These are the components required for the project to be completed, and the project will not be considered complete without these features.S stands for should have. These are components required for the project completion, though not urgent but are high priority. C stands for could have. These are components of the project that are highly desired but are not necessary for the completion of the project. W, stands for won’t have. These are the components of the project that have been thought of, but they are not to be implemented in the current project, but they have a chance of being included in the next project.
Fig 2. MosCOWprioritization method
In implementing any project, risk should be factored in. Risk is a condition that what had not been planned for that may occur and affect the project. With that in mind, the project manager needs to have a risk management framework in place. Some of the common risks associated with project management include degraded quality regarding handling a project as less human resources are used. The other risk costs. This occurs when the project uses more resources than the allocated budget. These cost risks can be considered as poor budget planning or inaccurate cost estimations. Cost risks normally lead to performance risks.
The other common risk is the schedule risk. This occurs when the project runs out of schedule by taking more time than the scheduled time, affecting other activities. Schedule risks may lead to cost risks because more resources mean more expenses. In general, the schedule risks will affect the performance of the project. The other risks that may occur are governance risk, deferral risk, which comes from failing to perform the project.
It can noted that project risks can either be internal or external. All projects are subject to face risks if they are to be deemed successful. The risks usually depend on the nature and weight of the possible outcomes and their likelihood. To handle risks in project management, what should apply steps of avoiding or preventing risks. The most effective way to avoid risks is by walking away from them or by mitigation when they can’t void the risk. Mitigations help to prevent the damage from being bigger.
Nowadays, the risk is handled by transferring it to someone else. Typically, this is having the insurance company pay. When risks can’t be avoided or mitigated, acceptance is reported. Risks need to be tackled earlier before it’s too late. A risk management plan provides a clear guideline on how risks are to be handled.
Risks need to be handled by employing different steps. This includes mapping the risk in the picture, the results of these risks, and what happens after. The impact and severity of the risks also need to be measured. How is the risk going to cause a problem? What will be affected as a result of the risk? After that is answered, the next step to be taken is what decisions need to be made. This is where the project manager is crucial in analyzing and determining whether the project should carry on or stop completely and determine the steps for mitigating it. After this part, solutions need to be identified and drafted, after which the risks are constantly analyzed. These steps are crucial in the identification and analysis of the risks. The structure of the project management is important for the success of any project. When the structure is not well organized, it often leads to the failure of the project. The project management structure is organized so that the project manager is the overall leader of the project and has the power and speaks authority over the project.
The powers of the project manager allow him to have a say on the project budget and cost, control the project schedule and the structure of the project task force. On the project team hierarchy, the project manager is at the top, and they manage everything, and the other employees are their juniors. The structure is also organized such that the team members report directly to the project manager, and all the activities of the project work towards the realization of the project’s goal. The project manager assigns tasks to the project members, makes key project decisions, and manages project resources. The project members either work permanently or part-time on the project. To create a uniqueness of the organizational structure, the project team and resources are demobilized on the completion of the project. The company usually tasks different departments of the organization to support the project. The common departments that offer support include human resources and the administration departments. (Cakmakci,et.al,2019).
Most companies have resorted to this type of organization when dealing with their projects as it has proven to be so effective. The project manager is always given major responsibilities because of the skills and abilities they are to possess, which are much needed for the success of a project. (Demirken.et.al,2017). This structure is preferred due to transparency; hence nothing can be compromised. This structure also provides clear communication channels hence no confusion can arise.
The success of a project requires teamwork from the project team. Therefore, team members need to support learning, growth, and improvement based on the different skill sets. The project organizational structure has made the learning curves quicker as it encourages the project team to learn from one another; thus, it takes a much shorter time. The project team concludes that the overall success will depend on the principles and methods adopted; hence the organization needs to employ the best structure.
The project team must handle the limitations of any organizational structure. This includes giving the project manager more power. This can lead to pride and arrogance leading to a misunderstanding between the project manager and the project team. This structure also includes inflexible and tight schedules. This is not a healthy technique because it brings fatigue and can lead to stress. For the part-time members, it can bring un-commitment because they know their job ends once the project is completed.
The project life cycle costing gives the company a tool for breaking down the cost of the project. This cycle is also a technique for evaluating and determining all the expenses incurred as the project is being implemented. The project’s costs are divided into three important components; project maintenance, operation & design, and development. These three need to be incorporated for the project costing to be completed. After these three parts are considered, the costs incurred in making purchases, investment costs, development, and the actual value of the technological products being used should also be added by the project manager.
Some of the potential employers in the project are employees, suppliers, community, suppliers, investors, customers, community, vendors, trade unions, and government.
The project management cycle is a clear framework that helps a project manager take a project through a systematic process to ensure the project is cleared within a short period and is done successfully. The project cycle ensures the project is subdivided into small steps that would be easier to understand and implement easily. This will make work easier for the project manager because they would take steps assigned for the specific project and go to the next when it is done. There is a coincidence with the Kanban methodology because members must communicate every step they undertake to avoid messing up with the project. Poor communication and taking the project as a whole will mess up the project. Therefore there is a need to follow the steps keenly.
The project cycle is required to outline clearly a few aspects. These aspects include project deliverables, project monitoring through each phase, the projects’ final goal, and the people involved in the project group. The different phases are followed using the life cycle. There is a need to complete a previous project phase in the sequential phase before going to the project phase. The overlapping phase implies that the start of another project phase does not necessarily require the end of the other phase (Bibarsov et al., 2017). This kind of project requires an adaptive life cycle because it outlines easy adaptation in rapid changes.
The project cycle always starts with the initiation phase. In this phase, the project goals are outlined and ensuring that project groups understand the goals that have been set out. Also, it shows the priorities of the project and the risks that the project is likely to encounter. From this, the project group will get the scope required to complete the project effectively. After completing the initiation phase, planning follows. In this stage, the project schedule is outlined; it shows the beginning of the project, and the time it will take to complete the project effectively and systematically. Also, there is a need to include the project’s budget during planning, which will ensure the company has an entire scope of what is required to complete the project in time. Available sources should also be considered. This is in terms of human resources and other available resources that would be esse3ntial AMD of importance in completing the project.
Fig 3. WBS of the required project
After all the resources have been gathered and proper planning put in place, the execution phase follows. This is the phase where the actual project starts. After the execution of the project, there is a need to monitor. Monitoring ensures that every step is followed and every policy put in place is followed effectively to the latter. The project is divided into small cycles. By doing this, it is necessary to ensure that a step is completed before starting a new step to ensure the effectiveness of the process, so long as the sequential cycle is used. From this cycle, performance can be easily measured. Project groups are rated depending on how they perform their duties. Monitoring is required to continue until the project reaches the completion stage.
Project management is an important factor in governing a project. A project manager or group leader must understand project lifecycle and risk management to provide a clear strategy to ensure the project’s success. In addition, they are using a proper tool in bringing changes within an organization to achieve the major goal. The project manager must ensure the project does not go beyond its budget, and if it goes beyond the budget, there is a need to stop it.
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