Essay on History and Philosophy of Science

Published: 2021/12/16
Number of words: 805

Many scientists tend to be very attentive and cooperative in their scientific research. The main aim is to have an objective at the end of the research. They apply specific principles and methods that enable them to behave well towards the objective. Scientists have curiosity in their scientific world; they persevere every obstacle they come across to get credible research data. There is what they value in their work and what they do to adopt the values.

Scientific inquiries focus on a set of values and practices. Modern scientists developed values and practices that would help in scientific behaviors. Nicolaus Copernicus was a polish astronomer and the first European who proposed that the earth and other planets rotate around the sun(Huston and Jonathan,2014). The theory was referred to as Heliocentric theory. The theory made other scientists change how they used physics and astronomy in understanding the universe. Copernicus published a manuscript of his book about revolutions of heavenly spheres. In the manuscript, he argued that planets orbited the sun and not the earth. Copernicus also laid a solar system model on the planet’s path. From his research, he concluded that all planets revolved around the sun. Copernicus also discovered that the earth revolves on its axis, and what people see in heaven is affected by the earth’s motion. Copernicus’s value was not in what he said but in what it impacted other scientists.

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Following what Copernicus determined about the planets, Kepler developed three laws of planetary motions. He discovered a line between the sun and every planet that covered equal areas in equal times. Kepler also found out that Mar’s orbit was an ellipse. He published an Astronomia Nova, currently known as the first two laws of planetary motion containing all his discoveries( William et. al, 2010). Kepler cooperated with Tycho Brahe, an astronomer, in establishing theoretics and experiments in science inquiry. He had the curiosity to add to what Copernicus developed and make the heliocentric model more perfect. Kepler was the first scientist to discover that visions in the eyes are driven by the refraction of light that leads to deep perception. He believed that human eyes are created to observe and understand the universe’s structures.

Although Copernicus’s discoveries were misunderstood by many, Galileas valued Copernicus’s knowledge over traditional knowledge. He discovered four massive moons of Jupiter, currently known as Galilean moons. He made a refracting telescope that supported heliocentric theory indicating a sun-centered solar system. The telescope made many people interested to see what Galileas saw in the sky. It created curiosity for many who wished to study the universe and the heavenly bodies. He was a great Catholic believer but valued studying the beauty in God’s creation. He believed that the bible contained scientific truths, and it was necessary to use God-given knowledge to discover the truths about the universe. Galileans had courage in his scientific role, although he suffered humiliations that forced him to deny his theories to save his life. His curiosity and humility created a framework and guidelines that inspired other scientists.

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In addition, Newton was a scientist who studied gravity and planet motions, has significantly contributed to scientific study. His ideas have widely been used in physics. He discovered that the force that makes an object fall after throwing it up is the same force that makes planets revolve around the sun. To explain his discoveries well, he developed laws of gravitation and Newton’s laws. He based his research on several factors such as time, length, and mass (Newton, 2014). He studied the massive bodies by applying mathematical points. Newton’s first law stated that stationary objects could not move unless an external force is applied to make them move or change direction. He called the resistance of objects to motion inertia. The other law describes that the object’s force has equal mass of the object times its acceleration. The last law states that in every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. For instance, when one pulls a rope, it tends to pull back. However, Newton valued his scientific work such that he made other scientists understand the importance of weight in physics.

In conclusion, many scientists have tried to apply methods that support their scientific inquiry. Several values have been portrayed that have contributed significantly to reliable researches. Copernicus created a philosophical framework to guide other astronomical revolutionaries in their work. The applied scientific values have helped people discover and get answers to mysterious questions about the universe.

Work Cited

Huston, Jonathan. Pdxscholar.Library.Pdx.Edu, 2014,

Borucki, William J., et al. “Kepler planet-detection mission: introduction and first results.” Science 327.5968 (2010): 977-980.

Newton, Isaac. Newton: philosophical writings. Cambridge University Press, 2014.

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