Essay on Exploring Norms of Englishes Globally
Number of words: 2829
English is an international language that is widely used to make communication easier. It is acceptable that the language does not belong to the native speakers anymore. The notion of English belonging to the US and UK has changed because of modifications that it has received globally. The language has diversified and led to the emergence of other Englishes depending on the usage and region. Radical changes globally, business, and culture have also affected English usage to some extent. It is in the interest of the paper to examine critical norms that encompass the concept of Englishes in a global context. Studies have since emerged, focusing on the new emergent Englishes and conformity requirements that attribute to them. Students travel from one continent to another for studies, which are only made possible by the help of the English language. As such, it is vital to understand the role that education plays in nurturing a sociolinguistic society. Many critics are questioning the eligibility of the new Englishes in schools. The report seeks to unfold cultural practices that have influenced the change of norms as it pertains to the language. There is a difference regarding written English and spoken English, as exhibited in real life. The study needs to examine native English norms existence or whether there is a significant shift in the practices of originality. The world has become dynamic, making many scholars accept the different forms of Englishes that have emerged for professional, cultural, practice, and educational reasons. Flexibility in language use and acceptability is an essential factor for many professionals who would want to work in any multicultural environment. The paper will seek to conduct a detailed study of the literature review on the topic of discussion; a methodology applied in data collection, findings, and an elaborative debate on the norms of Englishes around the world. Examples of Englishes that the paper might use as an illustration include Australian and American English (Kirkpatrick, 2007).
The literature review of the norms of Englishes gives an insight into research that has been conducted by other researchers globally. It focuses on new emergent Englishes and changes that can be notable among them. In the report, an insight is given into background information regarding the American English norms and Australian English norms. According to several studies, English is spoken in most countries of the world. It began from a few individuals in Britain back in the sixteenth century. Most of the English speakers that exist today can acknowledge that it is not their native language. The literature review will help unfold critical areas where there exists a gap of information regarding the norms of English in the global context.
Balasubramanian & AbuRadwan in the year 2018 have expressed their views regarding the state of Englishes in the global context. In their article, “New Englishes Norms: A Reality or an Intellectual Ideal?”, the two have indicated support for the emerging Englishes to be incorporated and handbooks produced in regards to the same (Balasubramanian & AbuRadwan, 2018). The research notes that many are more tolerant to spoken English as compared to other forms, including the written English. The authors have conducted new research on the new Englishes, which calls for the decolonization of the language to allow new constructs and ideas (Balasubramanian & AbuRadwan, 2018). This is because different regions in the world have factors that affect the usage and acceptability of modern English. The report notes with concern that models developed as it pertains to Englishes have helped shape the norms that encompass the phenomenon. The new English structures are a significant factor, especially for teaching purposes in various schools. In the research, the authors try to answer the question as to whether gender disparities have affected the usage of the new structures in the language. The authors are seeking an explanation as to whether attitude changes exist among teachers based on their areas of specialization. As such, the paper is crucial in unfolding practices that are existent in the global context regarding varieties of Englishes. The authors have presented their information logically and comprehensively for learners and other researchers to understand (Balasubramanian & AbuRadwan, 2018).
In the year 2015, Khatib & Rahimi, in their article “Attitudes towards English Language Norms in the Expanding Circle: Development and Validation of a new Model and Questionnaire,” have expressed their view on the state of Englishes globally. The research is elaborative of a study conducted to ascertain the validity of the model that is applied in examining various attitudes. Different regions in the world might have differentiated attitudes and reactions towards the emergence of the new forms and structures of English (Khatib & Rahimi, 2015). The research also gives an in-depth analysis of the models that can be used to explain the different structures of the dialect. Their report focuses on unfolding notable differences between a native English speaker and those who are non-natives. For instance, there are apparent differences in dialect between American English and Australian English. The report acknowledges that changes in dialect should be accepted globally, not for speaking reasons only, but also for pedagogical purposes. It has also considered critical studies conducted on the topic of discussion and have given their views on the same. As such, the authors have done comprehensive work in ensuring that many understand the norms of the English language (Khatib & Rahimi, 2015).
Timmis, in the year 2002, researched the norms of English as per the native perspective versus the international context. The global context represents the emergent paradigms that encompass Englishes globally, while native speakers are the ones who speak the language from an original perspective. Moreover, the research examines the implications that are associated with the increased use of the dialect (Timmis, 2002). According to the author, questionnaire surveys were used to conduct research in regards to the norms of the language globally. The study drew over 600 responses from both students and teachers in over 45 countries with a view of collecting crucial information on what they feel about the language norms. The author has explained vividly the results that were obtained during the study and given an account of the same (Timmis, 2002). The article asserts that there are significant and acceptable changes internationally, which are different from what is expected in the native context. The study concludes by arguing that there is a desire from the international community to adopt the native lingual paradigms. Equally, the student and teacher view on norms of Englishes globally seem divided as the two view the phenomenon from different angles (Timmis, 2002).
Fang conducted another significant research on the norms of Engishes globally in the year 2017. In his article, “World Englishes or English as a Lingua Franca: Where does English in China stand?” the author has expressed his views regarding the Chinese English and where it lies in the world (Fang, 2017). The author has presented a debate on whether the dialect should be classified under the world Englishes or as a Lingua Franca. Lingua Franca represents a language that has been adopted as a second language and not as a native speaker of the dialect. The research gives an ideological negotiation to attitudes across different cultures regarding existent and emerging Englishes globally. The main focus of the article is China and as to whether the language should be classified as native or under Englishes of the world (Fang, 2017). To some, English spoken in china fits more into the lingua franca paradigm, while others feel like it should be classified under world Englishes (Fang, 2017).
Data extraction for the research involved a comprehensive content analysis of the existent studies completed by various researchers. A Content analysis is a critical tool that can be applied in research to achieve specific set objectives of a particular study. The main aim of the study is to examine the scope of norms of Englishes globally, and content analysis played an essential role in establishing materials that can be used for the study. Numerous studies conducted on the state of Englishes globally concentrate on the norms of the dialect. A proper and convenient method of data collection was necessary since the topic has created heated debates in the recent times. For this particular study, content analysis was an appropriate approach towards the collection of crucial information regarding the topic of discussion.
The internet was critical all through the research as it helped access information online regarding the topic of discussion. Through the use of digital media, it is easier to access any information for research under authorization by the content provider. The selection criterion for items relevant to the study was based on merit depending on content the articles contained. Over thirty articles were considered for this particular study, but only articles that met the selection criterion were examined. Materials that did not meet the selection criteria were not put under consideration as they are immaterial to the objectives of the study. Articles with content on how and why the world needs to accept and teach the new structures of dialect were given priority. Criterion for inclusivity was based on the relevance of the content to norms of Englishes in a global context. Moreover, articles that emphasized the expected future direction of the paradigms of English were considered for this particular study (Pennycook, 2010). As such, the collection of information was systematic and followed the acceptable selection criteria. Content analysis is used by social scientists to seek an understanding of a specific phenomenon; in this case, the world Englishes.
In every study, any researcher must take into consideration any ethical concerns that pertain to the specific research. As such, the report maintained a high level of ethical standards in its bid to understand the various norms that exist as it pertains to the English dialect. Insensitivity to ethical implications might attract litigation for an individual for breach of rights. As such, it was the interest of the research to consider moral attributes that encompass the phenomenon globally. Every step of the study met the acceptable behavioral standards that researchers should conform to. The process of content analysis was flawless and helped the study achieve the set objectives.
Findings and Analysis
According to the study conducted, it is evident that there is a paradigm shift in the way that English as a language is applied in the global context. Information collected indicates that the models in existence to explain the various norms have been beneficial. Several researchers have contributed to the literature on the topic of discussion, a majority of who have discussed the Kachru’s three-circle model. The model helps explain the norms of English in three major circles, which include the inner, outer, and the expanding circles, respectively. The inner-circle of the English paradigm encompasses dialect that is widely applicable in countries such as the USA, UK, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand (Jenkins, 2015). The outer circle of English speakers is commonly spoken in countries such as Kenya, Malaysia, Tanzania, India, Nigeria, Ghana, and Singapore, among others (Ling, 2010). The expanding core of the Englishes includes dialects in countries such as China, Saudi Arabia, South America, Korea, Nepal, Japan, and Taiwan, among others.
Significantly, the British English has gone through four key stages that have since shaped the dialect. The first stage encompasses the old regime that composed different speakers arriving in England to speak what later turned out to be a highly appropriate language (Kirkpatrick, 2007). At that time, English had not developed to what it has evolved into currently. The second stage of British English development is the Middle English level, which borrowed much from other languages, including German. The English that was spoken at the time was approximately 90% native. Third, the dialect developed into what can be termed to as early modern English. The stage was accompanied by critical changes in the language and was characterized by many loaned words. Lastly, the fourth stage involved modern English that explains the reason why the dialect has taken a different direction. For instance, the stage is characterized by three major concepts, which include unprecedented growth of scientific vocabulary, an assertion on American English as a significant variety of the language, and the emergence of other types that can be termed as new Englishes.
Chinese English has issues that remain unsolved despite efforts that have traversed the dialect for decades now (Ahn, 2017). Some of the issues that are based on the dialect include its existence being in doubt, its naming and definition, whether it is different from Chinglish, perception that people hold on the language, whether it can be accepted as a standard language, its features, and possible implications associated with the dialect (Xu, Deterding & He, 2017). Fallacies that encompass the language include the dialect being a combination of Chinglish and English, that the language has emerged due to mistakes made during pronunciation and that the language is used for international communication and not intra-national communication (Xu, Deterding & He, 2017).
Another critical discussion drawn from findings in the study is that perceptions are changing globally on application and acceptance of the new structures in the dialect. It is also notable that students have a different thought on spoken English versus the written form of the same. In written English, many tend to conform to the norms of the native language, unlike when they are speaking. Equally, cultural complexion in every society has been a critical factor in shaping the newly emerging Englishes of the world. Linguistic research centers should champion for the acceptance and extensive usage of the new structures in the English dialect. Equally, it is essential to note from the study that students and teachers differ in perception regarding new Englishes and their application globally.
Teachers’ attitudes towards the new English structures have not been under comprehensive study, and there is a need to fill this gap of information. However, it is also important to note that their attitude towards the new dialect largely depends on where an individual comes from and cultural norms that affect language use. Most of the studies analyzed agree to the fact that the new Englishes had been better accepted as a dialect and be used in schools for learning purposes. Maintaining the norms of the English dialect has become hard due to different reasons for English use among people in the society.
To sum it up, there is a need to understand the direction that the English language has taken in the recent past. Many developments have accompanied globalization, including changes in the linguistic arena. The paper emphasized on studying the norms of the new Englishes of the world that have emerged lately. Also, an in-depth analysis of the phenomenon has been reached after a thorough and comprehensive content analysis of resources online. Linguistic experts should be able to analyze and predict the future direction that the English language is likely to face. This can enable the society to come up with strategic measures on how to learn the new concepts for better comprehending. The report has given comprehensive information on the state of Englishes and its application globally. Most of the new Englishes that have developed are a mixture of British English and words that have been borrowed from a different language. It is essential to understand the scope and changes that traverse the English dialect globally.
Ahn, H. (2017). Attitudes to World Englishes: Implications for Teaching English in South Korea. Routledge.
Balasubramanian, C., & AbuRadwan, A. (2018). New Englishes Norms: A Reality or an Intellectual Ideal?. Journal of Arts and Social Sciences [JASS], 8(3), 27-39.
Fang, F. G. (2017). World Englishes or English as a Lingua Franca: Where does English in China stand?: An ideological negotiation and attitudinal debate of the use and function of English in the Chinese context. English Today, 33(1), 19-24.
Jenkins, Jennifer. (2015). Global Englishes: A resource book for students (3rd edition ed.). London and New York: Routledge.
Khatib, M., & Rahimi, A. (2015). Attitudes towards English language norms in the expanding circle: Development and validation of a new model and questionnaire. The Journal of Teaching Language Skills, 7(1), 51-81.
Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). World Englishes paperback with audio CD: Implications for international communication and english language teaching. Cambridge University Press.
Ling, L. E. (2010). English in Singapore and Malaysia. The Routledge handbook of world Englishes, 229.
Pennycook, A. (2010). The future of Englishes: one, many or none?. In The Routledge handbook of world Englishes (pp. 695-710). Routledge.
Timmis, I. (2002). Native‐speaker norms and International English: a classroom view. ELT journal, 56(3), 240-249.
Xu, Z., Deterding, D., & He, D. (2017). What We Know about Chinese English: Status, Issues and Trends. In Researching Chinese English: the State of the Art (pp. 1-14). Springer, Cham.