Number of words: 1297
Relationship between Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in every childhood caries, evaluated by quantitative PCR by Endang Bachtiar and Boy Bachtiar
Data collection methods and procedures:
- Physiological measurement
Is the rationale given for why a particular instrument or method was selected?
Physiological data collection entails using a specialized tool to measure the biological and physical status of subjects. These measures can be microbiological, physical, chemical, or anatomical. In the article, the researcher uses the quantitative PCR (qPCR) tool to measure the microbial presence of bacteria cultures in the dental plaque that results to tooth decay in kids (Bachtiar & Bachtiar, 2018). The rationale is given why this tool was used because it is a reliable quantitative molecular tool for measuring bacterium and fungus concentrations in clinical oral samples. In this case, it measures concentrations of Streptococcus Mutans and Candida albicans. The examiners are trained for two weeks to use qPCR to maintain the accuracy of the measurement and ensure precision in the information collected (Bachtiar & Bachtiar, 2018).
Who did the observing? How we the observers trained and supervised to minimize bias?
Trained examiners did the observation. These examiners were trained by being provided with manual describing study guidance and protocol regarding examining early childhood caries (ECC) and were trained based on the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (Bachtiar & Bachtiar, 2018). The training was done two weeks before the clinical samples were collected. The examiners were supposed to collect clinical oral samples from 30 preschool children. After training, the examiners were required to group preschoolers into two groups of 15 subjects. To be included in the study, children were required to have no symptoms of oral candidiasis. This study’s type of observation is scientific observation, where clinical samples are collected from the subjects. It is systematic and objective, and the researchers are looking at what is happening from a trained perspective.
What is the type and/or formant of the instruments?
The researchers use the quantitative PCR (qPCR) instrument to determine the amount of genomic DNA in the microorganisms (S. Mutans and C. albicans) under observation in the dental plaque. When performing a scientific experiment to test a hypothesis, one factor essential to producing quality data and results includes accuracy, as, without it, the validity of our experiment might not be credible. This study’s primary goal is to utilize qPCR to deduce the research questions’ proper and most accurate results. The type of qPCR instrument used in the study is the StepOne Real-Time PCR system tailored for real-time users and first-time users. The instrument determines information using a nanoliter scale. The purpose of the scale is to determine levels of molecules dilutions in genomic DNA. The instrument’s format is feasible with the population being studied because it provides accurate results on the types of dilutions in the microorganism. Specifically, the instrument determines the number of positive PCRs in a diluted sample through replicate reactions. According to the study, qPCR unique features allow the reaction to run until all primers have been exhausted (Bachtiar & Bachtiar, 2018).
- Available data and records
Are the records or data sets used appropriate for the research question (s) or hypothesis?
The study observation is based on the results of existing data and records. For example, existing data and studies show a strong synergism correlation between S. mutans and C. albicans. The research questions examine whether there is a strong correlation between S. mutans and C. albicans in children with ECC experience (Bachtiar & Bachtiar, 2018). The previous studies and data used in the research aim to support this research question. Various data are collaborated in this study to help in concluding the study. The data used show that co-adhesion between S. Mutans and C. albicans in one cariogenic biofilm mechanism by which yeast and fungus form lives in the oral cavity. The data used also show that the fungal-bacterial relationship is influenced by the proportion and number of salivary C. albicans (Bachtiar & Bachtiar, 2018). The conclusion reached various data sets that show that saliva’s quantity and quality play a significant role in influencing and maintaining oral fungal behavior as pathogen or commensal (Bachtiar & Bachtiar, 2018). Data bias exists when the data set does not reflect the population. Bias is the tendency of measurement to over or underestimates the population parameter’s value. The data bias that might exist in this study is under-estimating the population and under observation, which may affect the credibility of results obtained.
- Intervention fidelity
Overall, how was intervention fidelity maintained?
Treatment fidelity is defined as the extent to which an intervention is implemented accurately. Intervention fidelity has three core requirements, one that the intervention is implemented correctly, two that the intervention was done consistently for all clients, and lastly, that the intervention was implemented consistently for the entire time the treatment was implemented (Wilczynski, 2017). Treatment fidelity is difficult to maintain in real-world settings and natural settings. In real-world settings, many people do not have enough resources and support to carry out treatment accurately, and treatment fidelity in a natural setting can also be much harder to accomplish because the clients are more complex, and sometimes the caregiver is not trained. An example of this would be feasibility; are resources attainable? How much time would it take to train the caregiver? What are the costs of the required resources or services? Based on the above explanation, the study results would help caregivers use prevention programs to reduce the high rates of early childhood caries in young children since the intervention has maintained fidelity throughout the research (Bachtiar & Bachtiar, 2018). Intervention fidelity is vital for the accurate implementation of a treatment intervention. Methods have been developed to maintain a high level of accuracy but because of resources and support.
Review of the Literature
Does for search strategy include an appropriate and adequate number of databases and other resources published…?
The study uses various studies to validate the synergistic relationship between C. albicans and S. mutans in children with ECC experience. The study has used 51 secondary sources to support its claims. These secondary sources have been found through a series of dataset searches that include keywords; C. albicans/S. mutans, early childhood caries, and dental plaque. 51 secondary sources are appropriate and sufficient number of databases to support the theoretical discussion of the authors. Although the authors do not follow a specific conceptual framework since the study follows a scientific format, the study’s inclusion gives adequate information useful in making an evidence-based conclusion. The literature review flow is not logically organized but entails random use of articles to support the findings of the experiment. Research literature should be presented in a chronological manner where the theorist presents the most recent studies first and the conceptual framework that forms the study’s foundation. The research question is supposed to be answered through an evidence-based practice perspective that provides sufficient evidence to support the researcher’s claims. But this notwithstanding, the publications used in Bachtiar and Bachtiar (2018) provide a strong knowledge base for the research project.
Bachtiar, E.W. & Bachtiar, B.M. (2018). Relationship between Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans in early childhood caries, evaluated by quantitative PCR [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research. Retrieved from https://f1000research.com/articles/7-1645/v2
Wilczynski, S. M. (2017). A Practical Guide to Finding Treatments That Work for People with Autism. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.