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A social enterprise is an organization that aims to maximize profits while maximizing the benefits that it guarantees the society. Organizations that operate to make profits that are directed towards social programs as the primary course (Dart, 2004). One significant factor of social enterprises is the fact that they serve specific social objectives within the society. Every borough within the United Kingdom should have established social enterprises to help improve delivery of various services.
This report aims to analyse the concerns and suggestions for Southwark, over the integrating aspects of health and social care, by analysing their Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA), Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) plans, and through Southwark website. The PEST analysis is used for explaining the researches critically about the Southwark (Atkin, 2010). For supporting the researches and analysis, appropriate references have been considered.
Southwark is the inner London Brought, situated opposite to the central City Of London, and the south of the River Themes. The Southwark came being in 1965 by the amalgamation of the three old metropolitans borough, i.e. Bermondsey, Camberwell, and Southwark. All the parts of Southwark belong to an ancient county of Surrey, except the one section, that belongs to the Kent (Atkin, 2010). The Southwark traditionally known as the Brought because of the market town from the early Saxon times, and it became the hub for criminals and prostitute in the middle ages. “The poverty rate in Southwark is 31%, above the average rate of London, and the unemployment ratio is 6.5%, 4th highest rate all over London (Atkin, 2010). Moreover, 19% of the workers in Southwark are paid low, which is a lower rate than the average rate of London” (Wallenfeldt, 2017).
Pest Analysis Definition
A pest analysis is an approach that is common in assessing the environmental conditions for strategic management of a business or organization. It is important to note that PEST can be used to determine whether a business can do well in a specific region or under specified conditions. A PEST analysis encompasses a critical check on important aspects that can affect funding within the specific borough. For instance, funding requires that political, economic, social and technological be considered in each stage of planning. For instance, with technological reasons, a facility or borough might fail to offer specific services. it is vital that an investor understands the environment and aspects that can affect operations within a social enterprise.
Integrated care is known as the collaboration of all the health and social care services for providing the services according to the people needs, so that the people can improve their health and living standards. People with long term condition needs proper health and care support, to ensure the access to the service is appropriate and easier (Dart, 2004). Also, guiding them about managing their situation themselves, so they very rarely need any emergency. “The Central London CCG wants to create such a health and social care system that is efficient and fast so that the people will get the right care at the right time in the right place.” Gathering all the information and guidance about social and health care, so that the duplication and confusion of the people can be eliminated, this will lead to a set of goals for the individuals, that supported by one team and having the same approach (Ho, 2014). The JSNA stands for (Joint Strategic Needs Assessment), this plan considered the broad social factors that impacted the people’s health and wellbeing, like their housing, poverty, and employment.
JSNA also considers the health condition of the population, such as their habits, appetite and living standards. This plan gives an overall view of the health care needs of the people also, documents the current service provision and the issues in the health care services. “The CCG plans (Clinical Commissioning Group) were created by following the social care Act in 2012 and placed by primary care trust on 1 April 2019, and there are 191 in England.” The reason for this plan is to figure out the best possible outcomes for the local population (Ho, 2014). This plan includes assessing the local people’s needs, deciding the strategies, and then purchasing all the services from suppliers like hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, etc. (NHS Clinical Commissioners, 2019).
Role of PEST analysis
“The PEST analysis is commonly used as a strategic planning tool. It is used by different professionals to identify the political, social, economic and technological factors that affect any organisation’s planning process.” Sometimes depending on the requirement, this analysis also includes the environment and legal factors, called PESTLE analysis (Peng and Nunes, 2007). Using PEST, it becomes elementary for an organisation to figure out all the factors that may affect the external (macro environment) and the strategic plan of the organisation positively or negatively. By accessing this information, an organisation can more quickly come up with strategies that may help to put the organisation on a faster track to achieve its goal (Peng and Nunes, 2007). Therefore, it is essential to conduct the PEST analysis before making the strategic plan; not only it will help the organisation to be cautious before making any decisions, but it will also keep the company on the right track (Sammut‐Bonnici and Galea, 2015).
The following is the PEST analysis of Southwark over the analysis of the integration of social and healthcare.
As per the JSNA plan of Southwark, the population is increasing very rapidly, to cope up with this situation, some fast and efficient measures need to be taken for providing the better healthcare facilities to the people.
Figure 1– a graph showing the increasing population of the Southwark, Southwark Council. (n.d.).
But the politics of the Southwark is not working according to the plan, investing more on the health and social care for the people they started investing in higher education (Sammut‐Bonnici and Galea, 2015). That action of the government leads the social exploitation of the lower sections of the society. If the government does not improve its severity, it will fail to full the objectives of the JSNA plan to improve the quality of the lives of people of Southwark. The current political system of Southwark is following such a network, which is promoting and working for the betterment of the rich and powerful people (Sammut‐Bonnici and Galea, 2015). Because of this current political situation of Southwark, the rich are becoming stronger socially, while the poor are becoming socially poorer. These current poor health conditions of Southwark are the main reason for the rapid increase of the population.
As per the CCG plan of Southwark, will improve the health care facilities for the people (Southwarkccg.nhs.uk, 2019) , but due to the more favour of the politics to the affluent class has turned the table, the local hospitals of Southwark are in the worst condition because the wealthy people cherish all the political services by giving them heavy taxes. Because of this, poor people are not unable to get access to the basic treatment, resulting in a decline in the overall health of the people of Southwark (Recklies, 2006). The food and drug industries have mobilised the scientist to produce a large scale of their products by increasing the bogey of the so-called “Protein Gap” by only focusing the need of upper-class, due to which thousands of the poor families of the Southwark unable to get the expensive medicines, which the industry controls the doctors to prescribe to meet the nutritional needs of the sick peoples (Recklies, 2006). The JSNA plan also focuses a lot on mental health care because of the rapidly increasing rate of psychiatric disorders among the people of Southwark (Southwark Council. (n.d.)).
Figure 2-increasing mental disorders among the people of Southwark.(Southwark Council. (n.d.)).
Because of the political dominancy over the system of the Southwark and poor lifestyle, malnutrition and poor health condition of the people has resulted in the early and permanent mental retardation in the people due to brain damage.
The extensive use of health and social services as the political weapon by the upper classes has resulted in the unjust social order, and the use of the programmers that control population programs has unleashed to the virtual class war by the oppressors against the oppressed people of the Southwark (Recklies, 2006).
“A large number of studies and researches indicates that there is a strong correlation between unemployment or low levels of income and increased mortality rates.” The JSNA plan of the Southwark mainly focuses on providing the job and employment opportunities for the people of the Southwark.
Figure 3– complete data of JSNA plan about the employment rate of Southwark, (Southwark Council. (n.d.)).
The downturns in the economy of the Southwark are rapidly increasing the rate of unemployment, which is ultimately affecting the mental and physical health of the people. Several studies proved that the people who lose their job have suffered from mental diseases like somatisation, depression and anxiety (Recklies, 2006). The loss of employment and low income are the main reason for the declining economy of the Southwark because it has a deleterious effect on peoples’ lifestyle. Job insecurity is also the reason for the increase in drug addiction, increased rate of suicide and depression among the most vulnerable group of people that belongs to low socio-economic class.
“Always there is the widespread agreement over the stressful economic and social circumstances, the demand for public health services is getting increasing, due to which many people switch from private health sectors to the public one”. It is also observed the quality of health care depends upon the household income (Rastogi and Trivedi, 2016). As the majority of people are associated with the low socioeconomic classes in Southwark, so inventing more on medicines and healthcare is considered by them a waste of, this perception leads to the poor health of the people (Rastogi and Trivedi, 2016). Due to the less utilisation of health care services, leads to a weak economy because both the population and income features a significant role in increasing or decreasing the economy.
The downturn of the economy of Southwark has many attributes that lead to unemployment, premature deaths from intentional violence, suicide, homicides and excessive alcohol abuse (Rastogi and Trivedi, 2016). The economic decline and poor health condition in middle or low-income states always increase the rate of mortality.
Southwark is considered as the poor socioeconomic because its economy is adversely affected by the repercussions of the crisis, as the socio-economic factors play a prominent role in the mental health level of the population. “The income inequalities, fluctuating occupational factors and the productive capacity are the leading indicators for the weak economy of Southwark.” It is worth mentioning that the states with high income have low mortality and fertility rates and increase of life expectancies (Rastogi and Trivedi, 2016). The declining economy of the Southwark also leads to an increasing number of people with malnutrition. Weak economy leads to unemployment and because of unemployment and unemployment leads to poor health care and nutrition.
The main reason why Southwark is facing healthcare issues because of the poor social environment. The people of Southwark are way too lazy, because of that they suffer from many diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, and severe depression. Inactivity also makes you look older and fatter.
Figure 4– Southwark a highly Obese(Southwark Council. (n.d.).)
It has been observed that children between 3 and 10 years are in the reception of the overweight or obese (Lobstein, Baur and Uauy, 2004). Because of the obese or overweight increases the chance of dying because of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke and gallbladder diseases.
According to the perception of the people of Southwark than tobacco is only the preventable cause for depression and premature death, because of this perception, many tobacco dependence diseases found in among the people of Southwark(Lobstein, Baur and Uauy, 2004). Also, the JSNA plan of the Southwark focuses a lot on providing the proper counselling to the people to overcome their excessive tobacco consuming habit because according to JSNA plan, ever year 270 people died in Southwark because of tobacco linked diseases (Southwark Council. (n.d.)).
Figure 5– Showing the rate of consumption of tobacco according to ethnicity(Southwark Council. (n.d.)).
Also, the people of Southwark are associated much with the consumption of drugs and alcohol, and this leads to substance abuse and also self-medication using legal or illegal drugs. Southwark is also known as the hub of prostitutes because the people are much associated with this crime, leading to HIV aids in the age group of 35 to 50 years (Weller et al., 2019). Because people are unlikely to use the condoms, that increases the chances of HIV aids among them, (fatigue, weight loss, dementia, skin rashes, swollen lymph nodes) are the symptoms that can easily be seen among the people of Southwark (Weller et al., 2019). Mental diseases are excessively found in the people of Southwark because of the many reasons like they are highly consuming tobacco, suffers from malnutrition and because of the miserable economic situation of the Southwark. Many people belong to lower socio-economical class don not monitor their health as they should monitor, while a geriatrician shortage has been observed in the Southwark(Weller et al., 2019)According to the CCG plan, that they will build more health care institutes to teach and treat the people of Southwark (Southwarkccg.nhs.uk, 2019).
The modern employing technologies in healthcare have saved countless patients and continuously improving its methods of treating people. The technology has a direct impact on the progress of healthcare in society (Hamm, 2018). As many people of the Southwark are associated with many severe diseases like mental disorders, HIV aids, heart-related diseases and obesity. To fight against these health issues, the health care system of the Southwark should be very efficient and accurate to eliminate these diseases from the people (Hamm, 2018). The latest technology of recording the patient’s data electronic health records (EHRs) should be installed in the health institutes so that the proper data of every patient should be with the hospitals so that the patients are treated accordingly (Hamm, 2018). The staff of healthcare should be well trained because they will prescribe all the treatment to the patient and also this technology can also be used for indicating the diseases to the doctors.
The health care department should have an updated IT system employed with all the modern technologies because using the data saved in them can be used as a foundation for the further treatment of that patient, so this system should work very efficiently. These modern technologies reduce so much workload so that the doctors and nurses can perform their duties more accurately and efficiently (Hamm, 2018). Employing the latest techniques in healthcare departments will also decrease the costs by reducing the men power. It has been concluded that employing the most recent technologies can be more beneficial in employing the CCG (Clinical Commissioning Group) and JNSA (Joint Strategic Needs Assessment ) plans, for improving the living conditions of the people of Southwark very much quickly and efficiently.
It is recommended for “the Southwark to employ the latest technologies like regulating technologies for health care consumer, developing guidance on the structure and usability of health information technologies, and developing the automated device for guiding the people how to take care about their poor health.” The adoption of this recommendation will improve the overall health of the people of Southwark because of the improved and modern system adopted in its health care institutes (Farid, 2019). It is further recommended for the Southwark to arrange the recreational centres in the town, with proper techniques of counselling them about the hazards of tobacco consumption over the health (Farid, 2019). The statutory bodies of Southwark can also work and improve the rules and regulation policies, that has been practising currently over there.
It is recommended that Southwark arranges the sources of employment for the people because the reasonable income of the people is directly related to many factors like economy, excellent health conditions, adequate lifestyle and eliminates many diseases from the people like depression and cardiovascular diseases (Farid, 2019). And last, It is recommended to the Southwark to engage its people in different physical activities because people in Southwark are inactive and majorly suffering from obesity.
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Weller, S.J., Crosby, L.J., Turnbull, E.R., Burns, R., Miller, A., Jones, L. and Aldridge, R.W., 2019. The negative health effects of hostile environment policies on migrants: A cross-sectional service evaluation of humanitarian healthcare provision in the UK. Wellcome open research, 4.