Essay on Inception of Police Administration
Number of words: 1430
Whenever one talks about police administration in the United States of America, the basic fact is that it has certain guidelines. Just like other field, the administration of police has its development curved upon certain periods. The development of police administration concentrates on influences of the political era, community as well as professional eras. In respect to these influences, one can say that the development of police administration attaches to social, legal as well as political context (Cordner 21). On the other hand, one needs to consider the influences of democracy on police administration.
In line with democracy, other influences may have effects in attaining complete control of the system. Such challenges therefore, may include influences related to homeland security as well as influence of the community on administration. The paper digs further into giving an explanation on the nature of police work. It illustrates the evolution of police work, management implications as well as social influences. On the other hand, there is a need to consider the goals of the police system, its purpose in the society as well as the organization of the system. Other aspects of consideration include the structures, processes and strategies of administration of the police system. Additionally one cannot ignore the humanistic aspects of the Administration of the police (Cordner 5). Further, the strategic perspective of the Unit is of great significance.
Development of Police Administration
The inception of police administration came after the development of organized policing. It was in the year 1829 that organized policing became a phenomenon. A period when the civilian population organized themselves to police communities and others volunteered (Cordner 32). At this time, policing activities involved volunteers, night watchmen, soldiers, ordinary citizens as well as private merchant police. However, it became apparent that such acts would not solve crime rates at the period. With an upsurge of crime within the regions, police administration had to be the law. Therefore, during the same period the Metropolitan Act became law (Cordner 4).
This law started operation as English law despite various arguments and debate on enforcement. However, nobody was prepared to handle the spiraling crime caused by industrial evolution. To maximize on the administration of police activities certain principles came into operation. Such principles of the time ensure that police organization runs concurrent to military units. The police department needed to ensure that they employ proper persons. Such persons had to receive proper training. Another important principle concentrates on employing police officers on a probationary basis. Other principle according to Peel necessitates that police officers deployment need to be on its strength and issues at hand. Further police departments need to have good record keeping policies as well as have a central headquarter(Cordner 5).
Politics ultimately had an influence on police administration. Therefore, the adoption of Peel’s principles became a hurdle in the management of police functions. Political figure at the period viewed police tasks as undemanding. This view prevented the police force from reaching its goals. With such influences, police officers’ compensation was far below Middle class citizens for a long period. Because of such low pay, police duties became a field of few individuals; left for those whose prospects of employment on other sectors were less. It is also imperative to note that politics had an influence on police administration (Cordner 6).
During these periods, police duties were set aside for certain ethnic groups of individuals. Politicians had a role to play on the recruitment as well as management of police duties. Therefore, police employment based on merit but on other grounds. During the political era on the development of police administration, decentralized system of administration became a feature (Cordner 7). With such a system, police officers were answerable to certain captains. Some officers had been inducted into political clubs whereas ignoring politician’s request could lead to dismissal. On the other hand, during this period, local politicians had an influence in the deployment of Captains. A local politician would pick a Captain who would be responsive to their orders.
Since the inception of police administration, there has been various complains on their inefficiency and abuses. Therefore, come the twentieth century Professionalism became an important feature. There was an outcry of on the political era of administration. Individuals felt that decentralization of police units had negative consequences on the force. On the other hand, politics influence on police administration led to mediocre personnel. This new era of administration called for the need of police intelligence, sensitivity as well as honesty (Cordner 7). Police duties on the other hand had to be strict, system had to deploy new tools as well as reaffirming Peel’s philosophy.
Various sentiments from Bruce Smith as well as O.W. Wilson promote professionalism in the management of police operations. They argue that police duties in a democratic society need creative officers. It is also essential that officers need to make sound judgment, be of good temperament as well as have humanistic qualities. Other feature of an effective police unit advocates the use of modern technology, discipline and concentration on education (Cordner 7). Modern police units’ administration values stricter controls use modern technology as well as value professionalism.
The community era of police administration is a modern phenomenon. Since more the number of well-educated individuals have been increasing in the police force, there is a need to have a flexible system of management. Improved salaries and working conditions attract highly skilled personnel to the force (Cordner 8). This therefore, makes various police agencies select recruits of their preference. The community Era of police administration further attains various deficiencies that the professional era brought to the force.
The professional era of management concentrates on physical skills, educational attainment, appearance as well as having clean records. This criterion however ignores other influences as well as lock out skilled employees. Attainment of such qualities ensured an effective police unit. However, research shows that there has been an increase in problems with the community. Therefore, the community era of management ensures that people from minority groups get into the force, women as well as less educated recruits. The difference between the professional and the community era bases on certain facts. The professional era of managing police activities border on rigid controls, centralizing of activities as well as demanding tasks (Cordner 8).
On the other hand, the professional approach has not been effective in reducing crimes. A record on crime statistics indicates that during the times of professional approach application, (1960s-70s) crime rates increased. Professional model on the other hand concentrates on using follow-up investigations, rapid response and preventive patrol measures. However, a closer look at these strategies reveals low effectiveness in controlling crime (Cordner 9).
Community policing, on the other hand, advocates for decentralization of police activities. As a modern approach to administration of policing, the system attains a closer tie with the community. Its strategy focus more on problem solving supports high quality personnel and concentrates on preventive context (Cordner 47). A further look on community policing approach reveals that the strategy concentrates on physical attributes, education and creativity of officers. It also neglects an important background characteristic of employees.
Reasons for not Delegating
Delegation of authority in an organization is perhaps one of the most important aspects. Delegation refers to a superior offering part of their tasks with authority to subordinates. Subordinates In such a situation receive the responsibility as well as the authority for the accomplishment. Delegation may also be described as the process of abdication. Subordinates are assigned duties as well as necessary authority for accomplishment. However, certain managers are unwilling to delegate authority to subordinates. Managers do this out of lack of confidence with subordinates and others for fear of losing control.
Other reasons relates to the attitude of managers. A closer look at managers who do not like to delegate reveals that they overwork. Overworking on the part of the management may interfere with productivity. On the other hand, lack of delegation interferes with employee performance. In such organizations, subordinates will prefer to maintain the status quo. Motivation levels would be low and subordinates might not wish to promote innovations. In order to limit such influences, organizations need to develop clear lines of communications, assign tasks effectively and promote team spirit. This may be done through seminars, sports events as well as in other activities.
Gary W. Cordner. Police Administration:Eighth Edition. Ohio. USA. Anderson Publishing. 2014 Print http://www.coursesmart.com/