Essay on Illness and Disease Management

Published: 2021/12/02
Number of words: 1220


Diabetes (Diabetes mellitus) is metabolism disorder that arises because of the body’s inability to convert glucose into energy (Adinortey, 2017). Thus, the concentration of glucose in individuals with diabetes is high; a condition referred to as hyperglycemia. Diabetes patients have a frequent urge to urinate (polyuria), desire to eat endlessly (polyphagia), and increased level of thirst (polydipsia).Diabetes prevalence has been on the rise in recent years in the USA. There are three forms of diabetes : Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes

It is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes/juvenile onset diabetes (Chiang, et al, 2014). In most cases, type 1 diabetes sets in during teenage and early adulthood. Type 1 diabetes is not common as type 2 and it accounts for only 10 % of total reported cases of diabetes. However, between 2001 and 2009 there was a 23 % increase in the reported cases of type 1 diabetes (American Diabetes Association, 2017). The body’s inability to produce insulin leads to the disorder. This, therefore, leads to hyperglycemia. Type 1 diabetes has no treatment, and thus patients suffering from it rely on lifetime insulin injections. Proper diet and regular exercise is recommended for diabetic individuals.

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Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the widespread form of diabetes. The disorder accounts for more than 85 % of the diabetes cases.Type 2 diabetes comes about when the body produces low amounts of insulin or resistance by some of the body cells to the insulin produced. The disorder is brought about by poor lifestyles. People who are obese and the older folks have a high probability of contracting type 2 diabetes. It has also been shown by some researchers from Edinburg University that men with low levels of testosterone have a high chance of developing the disorder since the low level of testosterone aggravates the risk of insulin resistance. It can be managed by insulin injections, proper diet, and regular exercises

Prediabetes is a condition in which an individual has higher than average amounts of blood glucose levels but lower than those for diabetes patients.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational diabetes sets up at pregnancy. It accounts for a small amount of the nationwide reported cases of diabetes. Gestational diabetes develops during pregnancy where the pregnant women are unable to produce the required amounts of insulin. Thereby this leads to the onset of hyperglycemia. Gestational diabetes is diagnosed during pregnancy. At least 20 % of gestational diabetes cases can be managed by regular injections of insulin, proper diet, and regular exercises. The tests for determining the presence of diabetes include The A1C test, The FPG (Fasting Plasma Glucose) test, and the OGTT (Oral glucose tolerance test).Diabetes has been shown to lead to the development of skin complications, eye complications, heart complications among others.

Importance of Studying the Disease

The fact that diabetes affects about 30 million Americans makes it is an essential study subject. Diabetes has been shown to increase the mortality rate by two times. Additionally diabetes increases the risk of developing cardiovascular complications by two times. The number of reported cases of diabetes in the USA has been on the increase with 1.5 million new cases reported each year. The numbers are set to increase with the increased prevalence of obesity in the USA, and thus mitigating solutions need to be put in place.

Morbidity and comorbidity of the disease


 In 2015, approximately 10 % of the USA population had diabetes. This is about 30 million Americans. However, despite the high prevalence of diabetes, only 23.2 million cases of diabetes had been diagnosed. Over 7 million people were living with diabetes unknowingly. Diabetes is prevalent among the older folks. In 2015, individuals aged 65 and above accounted for 25 % of the total cases of diabetes. This is about 13 million cases, which includes both the diagnosed and the undiagnosed cases. Approximately 90 million people in the USA had Prediabetes in 2015. Diabetes is widespread among the American Indians, Hispanics and the Blacks.


Obstructive Sleep Apnea. This is a sleep and breathing disorder among type 2 diabetes patients and accounts for eight out of 10 cases. In type 2 diabetes patients, the prevalence of OSA is approximately 25 %.

Fatty Liver Disease.Type 2 diabetes has been shown to aggravate the risk of developing liver, stomach, and intestinal cancer.

Fractures. Diabetes aggravates the risk of fractures more so the hip bone.

Impact of the chronic illness and patient morbidity and the effect on the overall health of a nation

The impact of diabetes on the overall health of the USA cannot be underestimated. Diabetes is prevalent among the older folks and individuals from minority groups. Diabetes aggravates the risk of developing cardiovascular problems, stroke, high blood pressure and hypertension. Currently, it ranks first in the cause of blindness in the USA (American Diabetes Association, 2015). The USA government invests significant amounts of funds in healthcare yet it lags behind other first world countries in life expectancy, deaths attributable to diseases and infant mortality deaths. It is evident diabetes plays a significant role in these statistics due to its high prevalence.

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In 2012, the USA government spent close to 245 billion US dollars in the treatment and management of diabetes. At least seventy percent of the amount was spend on the direct costs. The indirect costs accounted for thirty percent of the amount. Indirect costs include job truancy, disability, and deaths. The insulin medication is not cheap, and this takes vast amounts of money from individual’s savings.

Healthy People 2020 goals and objectives

The principal goal of healthy people 2020 concerning diabetes is to lessen the burden of diabetes. Besides the healthy people, 2020 intends to improve the quality of life of individuals who have diabetes or those who have a higher risk of developing diabetes. It is the plan of the organization to reduce the prevalence of diabetes by 10%. This represents a drop from eight new cases of diabetes in 1000 individuals to 7.2 new cases of diabetes. The body also intends the death rates of diabetes. Currently, there are 75 deaths per 100000 individuals with diabetes. The body intends to reduce the number to 60 deaths per 100000 individuals, which is a 10 % decrease. The body is also geared towards eliminating heart complications in individuals diagnosed with diabetes. The organization also intends to improve lipid control among individuals who are diagnosed with diabetes. The body also intends to ensure the blood pressure of individuals diagnosed with diabetes is kept at check.


Adinortey, M. B. (2017). Biochemicophysiological Mechanisms Underlying Signs and Symptoms Associated with Diabetes mellitus. Advances in Biological Research11(5), 233-241.

American Diabetes Association. (2015). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2015 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical diabetes: a publication of the American Diabetes Association33(2), 97

American Diabetes Association. (2017). 12. Children and adolescents. Diabetes Care40(Supplement 1), S105-S113

Chiang, J. L., Kirkman, M. S., Laffel, L. M., & Peters, A. L. (2014). Type 1 diabetes through the life span: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes care37(7), 2034-2054.

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