Essay on Cross-Culture Psychology
Number of words: 729
Cultural factors in every society influence behavior that individuals develop. Through culture, children can learn conformity standards and how they should behave in the society. Cross-cultural psychology helps many understand how culture impact emotions, especially for growing children. For instance, the concept of amae, evokes a feeling of helping others understand on how to become caring (Miyake, Campos & Kagan, 1984). In most Japanese cultural background, amae is the basic concept that infants are taught everywhere. Equally, the concept of omoiyari is also taught to kids to respond to the needs of amae, as far as expressions are concerned. As such, it important to note that cultural backgrounds impact emotional responses for growing kids (Miyake, Campos & Kagan, 1984).
In the article “The Japanese Preschool’s Pedagogy of Feeling: Cultural Strategies for Supporting Young Children’s Emotional Development”, the author has vividly expressed how culture plays a critical in shaping emotions on the young in a Japanese setting. The study focuses on what is taught during preschool in the society and how it impacts emotional development in kids (Hayashi, Karasawa & Tobin, 2009). It asserts that expressions that people show in real life influence emotions in kids, according to the Japanese culture. Preschool in Japan acts as a site where enculturation takes place for young kids. Most of the enculturation and emotional learning in the Japanese context are done at home and communal village areas. The author has also given an in-depth analysis of concepts surrounding the anatomy of emotions and its enculturation in the Japanese context. Information from the case study indicates that culture is a significant factor in shaping emotions for kids.
Teaching children on emotional feelings such as empathy is essential for them to develop sense towards un-verbalized behavior from others. Equally, it can help them grow in a way that they care about others. However, it is essential to note that facial expressions and emotions are not universal. A research conducted in the year 2012 on facial expressions and how they impact emotions has emphasized on cultural orientation’s contribution in shaping emotions. In the article, “Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal”, the authors have held an elaborative argument on how different parts of the world exhibit different cultures (Jack, Garrod, Yu, Caldara & Schyns, 2012). Culture is encompassed with facial expressions that are key in shaping the emotions of the young in the society. Each specific community has social norms that shape emotional responses from kids towards different stimuli. Further, the research clarifies that due to cultural differences, facial expressions evoke mixed emotions among growing kids who are learning. The case study features research that was conducted to ascertain the relationship between different parts and what they imply or feelings that they evoke (Jack, Garrod, Yu, Caldara & Schyns, 2012).
Understanding how cultural differences create different emotions on kids is vital for their development in the society. Parents bring up their children based on the cultural principles that they uphold. For instance, Japanese infants undergo two major developmental stages in gaining a sense of feeling. Background research conducted in the year 1984 focused on the comparison between cultural aspects that shape the bringing of infants in an American context versus in the Japanese setting (Miyake, Campos & Kagan, 1984). The critical developmental stages for infants according to the Japanese culture, covers one sensing their oneness as it pertains to cultural aspects. In the article, “Issues in Socio-Emotional Development”, the authors have compared what American mothers want for their babies versus what Japanese mother expect of their children. An American mother will aim at making their children talkative and happy, while Japanese mothers prefer kids that are quiet and contented. This indicates that expressions that evoke emotional responses in kids are dependent on cultural practices within the society.
Hayashi, A., Karasawa, M., & Tobin, J. (2009). The Japanese preschool’s pedagogy of feeling: Cultural strategies for supporting young children’s emotional development. Ethos, 37(1), 32-49.
Jack, R. E., Garrod, O. G., Yu, H., Caldara, R., & Schyns, P. G. (2012). Facial expressions of emotion are not culturally universal. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(19), 7241-7244.
Miyake, K., Campos, J. J., & Kagan, J. (1984). Issues in socio-emotional development. 乳幼児発達臨床センター年報= RESEARCH AND CLINICAL CENTER FOR CHILD DEVELOPMENT Annual Report, 6, 1-12.