Essay on Autonomy Implications for Flipped Classrooms

Published: 2021/11/05
Number of words: 5290

What is Flipped Classroom (FC)?

Blended learning in higher education classrooms is becoming increasingly common. Today, digital learning is more than simply a trend. There are several well-established applications for blended learning. Students learn partly on campus under supervision and partially online, with some flexibility in terms of place and speed. The flipped classroom method has grown more popular among the many diverse forms of blended learning in use today. Individual homework or group tasks replace teacher-led in-class teaching in flipped classrooms (Hew and Lo, 2018). The flipped classroom method has influenced health professions education, dubbed “a new paradigm” in medical education. It has been included in the curricula of many different health professions. This hybrid technique combines online learning with face-to-face classroom activities. Hwang, Yin and Chu (2019) define FC as the utilisation of videos and other multimedia learning material prepared by teachers. Consequently, before class the FC makes use of technology, transforming face-to-face classrooms into interactive learning activities. Traditional lecture-based (LB) techniques are restructured and reordered in this paradigm by placing students, rather than professors, at the focus of learning (Chen et al., 2018). Active learning results should increase when learners apply, practice, and engage with their pre-class information. Modern iterations of the flipped classroom initially appeared more than a decade ago; however, Birgili, Seggie and Oğuz (2021) argue that despite its widespread popularity, there is a lack of consensus among immediate users on many aspects of the method, including the definition.

Origins of Flipped Classroom

Eric Mazur’s “peer instruction” idea, Salman Khan’s Khan Academy, Maureen Lage, Glenn Platt, and Michael Treglia’s “inverted classroom” concept, and Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams’ “Flip Your Classroom” were among those who originally proposed the concept of FC. Teachers and peers must provide scaffolding in FC, consistent with the constructivist and social constructivist learning theories (Stöhr and Adawi, 2018). Although these theoretical foundations are critical, they are frequently ignored in favour of more technology-oriented activities away from the classroom, including watching video lectures or participating in group projects.

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The phrase “flipped classroom” became famous in 2007 when Bergman and Sams popularised it, with the view that conventional teaching techniques would waste more class time. Some scholars say flipping classrooms may be viewed as an inversion of the standard classroom teaching model (Ramasubramaniam, Nair, and Radhakrishnan, 2017). A video lecture may be given to students ahead of time to help them develop a deeper grasp of the material. Recent years have seen a rise in the usage of FC approaches by professors in higher education institutions. These techniques promote student involvement, active learning, and enhanced learning via technology. Nevertheless, some studies that have evaluated students’ perceptions found that FC is associated with reduced student satisfaction (Låg and Sæle, 2019). The negative perceptions point to higher acceptance of conventional lectures.

When it comes to recruiting new workers, there has historically been a disconnect between what students have studied and their acquired skills in college. Even though many institutions are aware of this gap, they continue to employ conventional learning methods that focus on the tutor rather than the learner, which hinders the development of critical skills needed in the job (Murillo-Zamorano, López Sánchez and Godoy-Caballero, 2019). As a result of this international trend, there has been a shift in higher education from the conventional instructor-based teaching technique to involving and student-centred learning practises in recent years.

Flipped classrooms are flexible and adaptable when combined with other active learning techniques. They also have an audio-visual component, which emotionally appeals to Generation Z learners (Murillo-Zamorano, López Sánchez and Godoy-Caballero, 2019). This group has a strong affinity for instant gratification from consumable experiences, as well. Any learning approach geared at this generation must also take into account and assess its degree of satisfaction. Self-regulatory learning, student-centred learning, mastery-based learning, and active learning are all concepts that are theoretically connected with the flipped classroom idea. Zou, Luo, Xie, and Hwang (2020) posit that after mastering one level of information, in FC, students can progress towards the next level of learning.

Flipped Classroom in Higher Education

When it comes to student-centred learning, flipping classrooms have been criticised for lacking a theoretical basis. A wide range of higher education institutions from different regions and specialisations have adopted flipped courses. According to Koh (2019), FC activities that encourage customisation, higher-order thinking, cooperation, and self-direction can all help students learn more effectively; personalisation is made possible by pre-class resource access and in-class teacher access. Peer and design groups in class help to deepen individual learning. As a result of the pre-class activities that promote fundamental knowledge and application, the in-class activities that stress sophisticated analysis, creativity, and application lead to higher-order thinking. As Subramaniam and Muniandy (2017) contend, a variety of models and frameworks are available for the flipped classroom technique to be used successfully. In this category, there is the Cinematic Lectures and Inverted Classes (CLIC). Similarly, Videos and Inverted Classes is a new flipping approach that allows instructors to provide course content asynchronously outside of class.

According to Lundin et al. (2018), as interest in FC studies grows, conferences tend to be more popular, with contributions from higher education and STEM disciplines dominating. Flipped classrooms are also taking shape in other languages and mediums that are more rapid, transient, and dispersed than those examined. Social media and other forms of user-generated knowledge-sharing platforms have characterised both the educational approach and its international development, opening up and enhancing access, reuse, and sustainability of learning resources.

It is the educational community’s principal objective to educate students for 21st-century society in higher education. As a result of the COVID-19 epidemic and its unavoidable repercussions, ICT has become the sole resource for online, synchronous, or asynchronous education (Latorre-Cosculluela et al., 2021). This pedagogical paradigm is one of the most effective ways to transform education into an online medium (Bergmann and Sams, 2012). Several school systems rely on this teaching-learning technique during the COVID-19 epidemic. Many writers promote the usage of flipped learning in academic setting. In recent years, flipping the classroom has gained in favour. As a result, instructors from various levels and backgrounds have adopted a Flipped Learning initiative, which has already attracted significant research. There are a variety of applications and experiences that may be found in the framework of a university. There are several benefits to learning from flipped class resources and the educational dynamics in the context where it is employed. From 2016 to 2018, the Flipped Learning Global Initiative was led by a global coalition of educators, researchers, and technologists dedicated to flipped learning (FLGI). Beside the United States and the United Kingdom, Taiwan and China, as well as Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and Spain are all nations where this organisation promotes flipped learning (Birgili, Seggie, and Oğuz, 2021).

After the FLGI’s launch, the term flipped classroom was replaced with flipped learning to emphasise that this technique is more than just a classroom layout (McCarthy, 2016). Because of the Arab coalition’s commitment to put an end to the rebellion and return to normalcy Yemen’s government institutions, schools along Saudi Arabia’s southern border have been forced to use the multi-shift system (Najmi, 2020). The educational community perceives a shortage of time expended to learning and the possibility of developing learning difficulties for all learners as a result. The flipped classroom technique is utilised to offer students an image of learning and educational gaps created by class duration and school day cutbacks in this study. In a multi-shift school context, the FC approach is possible for 5th-grade female pupils (Najmi, 2020). A flexible learning environment was created by combining online learning communities with classroom teaching, allowing students to absorb content before class and apply it in a more comprehensive way during class, providing more class time.

A study by Alwaqdani (2018) reported that 35 percent of respondents agreed that flipped classrooms exhibit greater engagement than conventional classes, 30 percent strongly agreed with the assertion, and 5 percent were unsure. In contrast, 20 percent of students disagreed with the claim; ten percent strongly disagreed with it. It is clear from these studies that flipped classrooms help keep students more interested in class content and discussions. According to Alwaqdani (2018), the FC method improves students’ course preparation and motivation to attend sessions. When compared to traditional classroom approaches, the FC has been shown to improve student learning by integrating collaborative classroom activities that promote student-student and student-teacher interactions. Additionally, Aşıksoy (2017) proposed the gamified flipped classroom concept, which involves applying game mechanics to the classroom setting to improve the student’s commitment to learning. The ideas by Aşıksoy, 2017 evolves around techniques to increase student’s participation. I flipped the classroom, given its virtual nature.

Albishi (2018) conducted a qualitative case study in a higher education setting to learn about instructors’ opinions on the implementation of the FC instructional method in math teaching in Saudi learning institutions. The findings from this study show that in some Saudi institutions, traditional teaching methods are employed. The flipped classroom educational style is a more recent notion that encourages students to learn on their own. The adoption of the FC instructional paradigm has demonstrated effectiveness in mathematics education in other countries, although there is little data on the approach’s usefulness in Saudi Arabia. Because of this, Saudi Arabia’s educational system has to be changed in order to create students who are well-prepared to compete in the global market (Al-Ghamdi and Al-Bargi, 2017). Saudi instructors and students can benefit from flipped learning by introducing it to them. An empirical study was to compare two English composition classes taught in two different ways: conventionally and flipped learning. To obtain data, the researchers used a pre-test-treatment-post-test strategy. The post-test findings showed that individuals who studied using the flipped approach produced a considerably larger number of words in written compositions (Al-Ghamdi and Al-Bargi, 2017). The flipped technique also proved to boost participants’ writing abilities significantly. Pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and fluency are challenging that Saudi students struggle with, resulting in speaking difficulties. As a result, teachers must dedicate more time to delivering personalised feedback to students to maximise their understanding of the target language. The use of flipped classroom approaches necessitates a change in how English language teaching is delivered (Al-Ghamdi and Al-Bargi, 2017). The flipped approach is a viable alternative to current English teaching techniques and methods in Saudi Arabia.

Constructivist Theory Effect on Flipped Classroom

Mcleod (2019) describes constructivism as a learning method that believes that individuals actively generate or construct their knowledge and that the learner’s experiences influence reality. Using experience, constructivism encourages learners to create meaningful meaning, which depends on the combination of current knowledge and new experiences. According to Xu and Shi (2018), the constructivist theory of learning forms an integral part of student-centred teaching techniques, such as the FC. From a constructivist perspective, the learning environment is learner-centred, and knowledge and understanding are generated socially. A completely constructivist learning environment may be described in terms of the flipped classroom. Learning is student-centred under the guidance of the constructivist learning philosophy.

According to constructivism, learners are encouraged to integrate their past experiences and cognitive structures into new learning settings, a learning theory (Tiilikainen et al., 2017). However, learners interpret the knowledge depending on their past experiences and cognitive schemata rather than mindlessly reproducing it. As a result, teachers should encourage students to examine their past knowledge and link new content to what they already know about the area of study. As a result of the teaching style, the constructivist learning paradigm is effectively represented.

The Role of Teachers and Students in Constructivism

The teacher’s function in the social constructivist classroom is to assist students in developing their knowledge and to regulate students’ presence in the classroom during the learning process. Furthermore, a social constructivist teacher emphasises learner reflection and cognitive struggle and promotes peer engagement. Constructivist instructors let student reactions drive courses, adjust teaching techniques, and change the content (Barak, 2017). The rationale behind the teacher’s restricted involvement is that it encourages students to engage in collaborative learning.

Students participate as active participants and knowledge builders in the instructional activities. Students in a constructivist setting are presented with a complicated real-world scenario and are obliged to perform a challenging assignment in reality (Xu and Shi (2018). Students construct a mental model that is both a knowledge builder and a knowledge reader by adopting new learning approaches and cognitive processing strategies.

The constructivist learning theory distinguishes itself by emphasising the manner of student-centred learning. Students appear to be an essential and prominent component of the FC English teaching process. The students’ subjective dynamic role is extensively shown in the constructivist learning theory model. A teacher’s sole role in a teaching activity is to aid learners in the process of learning activities. It’s the students who are in charge in this type of classroom setting. Because of this, students in flipped classroom English teaching are the primary source of cognition. They are actively involved in the meaning formation, breaking beyond the limitations of the traditional classroom setting. Students acquire information from a variety of sources before class in order to create meaning on their own.

The flipped classroom helps students learn to correct misunderstandings and arrange their new information so that it is more accessible for future use by allowing them to utilise their new factual knowledge while receiving instant feedback from classmates and the teacher (Myers, 2021). Furthermore, the rapid feedback provided in the flipped classroom allows students to identify and reflect on their developing understanding, supporting Bransford and colleagues’ third key conclusion. A ‘metacognitive’ approach to education can assist students in learning to take charge of their learning by establishing learning goals and tracking their progress toward attaining them (Myers, 2021).

Students’ Psychologic processes in flipped classroom

The ideas of knowledge development been cemented by lee Vygotsky who idealizes that knowledge can be socially developed in his zone of proximal development (Holzman, 2018). The ideas of knowledge development have been cemented by lee Vygotsky who idealizes that knowledge can be socially developed in his zone of proximal development. The idea of zones of proximal development identifies how a learner gains knowledge through another individual who has expertise in the same aspect. Flipped classroom creates a social learning opportunity in freed space by outsourcing basic knowledge through videos, from a socio-constructivist view knowledge through the social aspect of interaction, participation, and engagement (Foldnes, 2017). This fact implies that learning processes occur through the interaction of the students and the learning environment. In flipped learning, henceforth applies the concept of zones of proximal development whereby the student’s psychological development is attributed to the immediate interaction with peers and relevant groups.

The flipped classroom aims to increase learners’ topic understanding and, as a result, their course performance. As a result, knowing Bloom’s Taxonomy may be critical in creating an environment that integrates all phases of growth into the model. Fallahi, a researcher, used the course redesign concept to two Lifespan Development courses and discovered that using a model comparable to taxonomy levels offered a foundation for course planning (Borchardt and Bozer, 2017). Rather of focusing on lower-level cognitive tasks such as memorising information and processing it outside of class, students participate in higher-level cognitive tasks in class where they are encouraged by their classmates and teacher (Ahmed, 2016).

The flipped classroom setting gives students the opportunity to get a thorough understanding of a topic prior to a session, allowing following activities, assessments, and consolidation exercises to enhance the abilities while a teacher is there to assist the student. Lei et al (2019) conducted a research on traditional and flipped classroom learning and he perpetrates that In al traditional students are limited to lectures limiting their abilities to develop crucial skills such as programming as in an engineering class .As compared to traditional learning Students In flipped classroom are allowed to work on higher-level skills independently via homework and other activities, in contrast to the typical classroom teaching approach, which places a focus primarily on fundamental competencies (Ahmed, 2016). Flipped learning has its origins in social constructivism and it is inextricably linked to problem-solving, active learning, inquiry learning, and interpersonal communication. The flipped classroom encourages students to acquire new information that must be connected to previous knowledge; in doing so, students must reconstruct their worldview (Ahmed, 2016). They interact with their classmates in the classroom, which leads to deeper learning. The learning process, as defined by Piaget and Vygotsky, is self-evident.

Advantages of Flipped Classroom

When the classroom is flipped, the traditional classroom responsibilities such as content presentation become home activities, and homework assignments become classroom activities. When students learn in a flipped classroom, instructors help them rather than merely provide information, and they decide how fast they learn (Akçayır and Akçayır, 2018). The teacher may connect with students through alternative learning activities such as conversation, problem-solving, hands-on activities, and coaching because classroom time is not spent on lecturing. According to Tsai, Shen, Chiang and Lin (2016), this shift in activities is associated with positive learning outcomes, success, and academic performance.

Recent advancements in adult learning theory have transformed preclinical and clinical teaching in a variety of fields. Atkins,(2018), adult students learn through self-motivation and self-direction, making flipped classrooms ideal for adult students. Adult students learn best when they can fit fresh concepts into existing conceptual frameworks, allowing each individual to create their knowledge of a topic based on prior experience in a self-motivated way, consistent with the constructivism and active learning philosophies (Girgis and Miller, 2017). One approach for doing this is the “flipped classroom,” in which students examine materials ahead of time to enhance the value of in-class conversation. The flipped classroom entails introducing important concepts during a self-directed solo study session, followed by applying ideas in a facilitator-guided interactive environment (Girgis and Miller, 2017).

A study by Ge et al. (2020) compared flipped classrooms to traditional learning. From the findings of this meta-analysis, the disruptive FC technique used in radiology courses improves both theoretical and practical performance. From the research, it is evident that active learning totally replaces one-way transmission of knowledge by teachers in the flip classroom, which fully leverages contemporary technologies and platforms, translating to improved self-motivation to learn (Ge et al., 2020). Consistent with this view, Chivata and Oviedo (2018) account that FC increases ownership of student learning, with a global improvement in soft skills. Similarly, the use of pre-recorded multimedia allows students to organise their studies to fit their pace, without regard to time or location constraints. According to Birgili, Seggie and Oğuz (2021), this shift improves goal setting and time management skills.

The proponents of FC also link the approach to improved student motivation. For instance, where the approach takes a form of a quiz prior to or at the start of class, it leads to enhanced student preparation (Låg and Sæle, 2019). In this case, it can be argued that the motivation mirrors learners’ perceptions about FC. When multimedia materials are used, students can review the materials several times based on the actual scenario for the knowledge points that have not been acquired, which caters to students’ enjoyment of teaching materials and actually improves students’ learning quality and efficiency (Ge et al., 2020). Given that more class time is allocated to responding to individual needs, it allows for more excellent problem-solving and group discussion possibilities, offsetting the drawbacks of limited opportunity for idea expression and peer contact (Ge et al., 2020). Thus, teachers can identify and explain learners’ difficulties in a focused manner.

Challenges of Flipped Classroom

More time is necessary to adapt the course as a flipped classroom. Some students have inadequate self-regulation. As a result, some students fail to arrange their time to grasp the out-of-class learning content appropriately. According to the research, the flipped approach of education presents both potential and problems (Akçayır and Akçayır, 2018). However, just a few research have examined the educational outcomes and difficulties of flipped classes yet.

Additionally, external and internal factors posed obstacles to its execution. External factors are concerned with supporting facilities and technical issues (Ansari and Nafi, 2019). Internal factor refers to the difficulty of generating flipped learning content since it requires time-consuming preparation. Furthermore, several pupils were unmotivated to watch the movie. As a result, they have no idea what will happen the next day.

The greatest challenge the flipped classroom posed was the division it caused in the teaching and learning spectrum. The flipped classroom brought the possibilities of distance learning but created a barrier in student-student and teacher-student relationships (Ryoo and Winkelmann, 2021). Some may argue that this is an advantage, especially independent learners who grasp content exceptionally fast. Still, it is a thorn in the foot for those learners who need peer support, further guidance, or direct mentorship from their teachers to grasp content (Birgili, Seggie and Oğuz, 2021). Yet another challenge posed by the flipped classroom is the challenge of equity, especially in developing nations. As Ahmed and Indurkhya (2020) contend, equitable treatment, equal educational opportunity, and educational adequacy are other essential elements to examine when assessing educational technology’s usefulness and capacity to assist students in accomplishing their academic goals in learning environments that might be biased by geographical context.

Saudi Vision 2030 and Flipped Classroom

Economic diversification and social development are long-term aims of Saudi Vision 2030. Improving the education system is a top goal in Saudi Vision 2030 (Makhlouf, 2021). Diverse educational cadres must be adequately trained for it to be executed effectively. This vision’s primary focus is on economic reforms, cultural endeavours, and business investment. These reforms, however, cannot be achieved in the country without a firm foundation of excellent education. Educational changes have been conducted as part of Saudi Vision 2030 to utilise the best practices available (Makhlouf, 2021). Expanding English language instruction in Saudi Arabia’s government schools has also contributed to educational improvements and advances. Expanding English language instruction in Saudi Arabia’s government schools has also contributed to academic progress and betterment. At various stages of undergraduate and postgraduate study, a blended approach to instruction may increase learning experiences. A relatively new idea in Saudi Arabia’s education system, blended learning shows promising outcomes in terms of student satisfaction (Sajid et al., 2016). The passive lecture is replaced by active student-centred learning in flipped classrooms, which enhances critical thinking and application and knowledge retention and recall. To improve student performance and growth, traditional teaching techniques should be replaced with innovative and creative approaches and strategies, such as the flipped classroom method (Alrouqi, 2019).

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Saudi Ministry of Higher Education launched three technology-focused projects as part of the Horizons plan: creating e-Learning and distant education, implementing information systems in all higher-education institutions, and establishing a high-speed educational network among Saudi universities (Albadran, 2020). More recently, in 2016, Saudi Arabia unveiled its Vision 2030 strategic plan, which aims to change all sectors of society, including education. The Ministry of Education (MOE) is transitioning to digital education by incorporating new technology into the classroom and necessitating a shift in instruction delivery and learning techniques from teacher-centred to student-centred methods (Albadran, 2020; Almanasef et al., 2020). In the case of the FC approach, e-learning is the primary domain and online educators use a variety of new electronic technologies to facilitate successful classroom participation in instructional disciplines. Therefore, e-learning courses improve learning chances for students worldwide (Khatoon, 2021). The adaptability of online classes allows students to reap the benefits of web-based learning, meeting Saudi Arabia’s vision 2030 of technological advancements. Albadran (2020) reports that most faculty members at Saudi institutions have previously used the flipped classroom model-based technology with a student-centred approach in their classes. In addition, several of them want to use flipped classroom technology in the future school year.

In spite of the growing popularity of flipped classroom, there is a paucity of empirical data supporting the integration of flipped classrooms in learning institutions. The lack of consensus among practitioners on several aspects of this phenomenon, including the definition, makes it challenging to estimate the extent to which FC has been adopted globally.


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