Environmental Management and Sustainability Report

Published: 2021/11/11
Number of words: 4916


Changes in climate pose a significant challenge to the environment and biodiversity in general. Climatic change constitutes of long-term changes in the expected weather patterns in a particular region for a specified period, usually over 35 years (Urry, 2015). There is an urgent need to develop strategic measures in the protection and conservation of the environment. Failure to protect the environment can attract dire consequences to the health of individuals within the surrounding. To achieve sustainable population health within a particular place, environmental conservation must be prioritized (Van Huis and Oonincx, 2017). Climatic changes and its impact on the environment is one of the key areas that are threatening sustainability. The climatic changes are caused by both direct and indirect factors. For instance, the high levels of emissions from cars and other industries are a major cause of global warming, which results in climate change. With increased changes, the environment has been polluted and human health threatened (Bulkeley and Newell, 2015).In this regard, it is critical to examine the causes and impacts of climatic changes and explore critical national and international policies that can help promote sustainable health among individuals in the society.

Sustainability Concept

Achieving sustainability in environmental conservation is an essential matter for each individual within any society. There is a need for all organizations and businesses to develop some sense of sustainability in their operations (Althor, Watson and Fuller, 2016). Sustainability implies that an organization can act in its best of interest without compromising the state of the future. In the process of protecting today’s environment, there is a need to consider the resulting impact on the future surrounding (Roncoli, Crane and Orlove, 2016). The environment within society is essential to each individual, and polluting it can affect many who depend on it. A policy implemented to help conserve the environment can fail to take effect if the management does not commit itself towards conservation. It is the role of government and other environmental conservation bodies to come up with sustainable approaches to solving ecological conflicts. Sustainability will ensure that future generations enjoy a resourceful environment that is appealing.

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Humans and other animals much depend on the environment for several items that are essential for survival. For instance, the environment provides habitat for birds and other animals. Failure to protect the environment will lead to long-term loss of biodiversity within the surrounding. The rising population of individuals globally is challenging the sustainability of the environment. This is because people are clearing the environment to construct houses for settlement and carry out other business projects. The need for more land is risking the existence of a natural and well-conserved habitat. Policies that are being implemented should consider the sustainability factor in its bid to improve environmental conservation.

The 3-PillaR Model

The three pillar model is a tool that is applied to ensure that sustainability has been achieved. Sustainability is ensuring that the needs of the present are met without compromising the ability of future generations meeting theirs (Griessler and Littig, 2005). The concept of sustainability can be achieved by focusing on three significant dimensions, namely, environment, economic, and social aspects. Ensuring environmental sustainability can help prevent issues with climate change. The surrounding should b protected as it plays a vital role in providing necessities. It is crucial to note that the three pillars of sustainability work together, and if any is weak, the whole system is feeble. The three pillars work to ensure that there is a just, bearable, viable, and sustainable approach to environmental issues within the society.

Social sustainability illustrates the ability of a system to function correctly at a defined level of well-being and harmony presumably (Eizenberg and Jabareen, 2017). When problems such as war manifest within the society, it is an indication of a failed system. There is a need for members within the community to co-exist peacefully for prosperity (Griessler and Littig, 2005). Without social sustainability, the society cannot be able to progress as social problems hamper any efforts put in place. Other examples of social issues that have derailed sustainability include diseases, poverty, widespread injustice, and illiteracy. Communities that are characterized by such features find it hard to ensure sustainability in their economy.

Environmental sustainability implies the ability of the surrounding to support a certain level of quality and resource extraction. The aim is to ensure that the resources in place do not get depleted as future generations require them. The environment should not be subjected to pressure that can see its resources depleted (Baland, Bardhan and Bowles, 2018). Environmental sustainability forms the world’s biggest real problem. The consequences associated with poor environmental sustainability are delayed, which makes it less prioritized in many cases. Failure to conserve the environment and ensure its sustainability attracts climatic changes (Griessler and Littig, 2005). To avoid climate change, there is a need to employ environmental sustainability as an essential pillar.

The economic state of a region impacts its environmental sustainability practices. Economic sustainability is the ability of a system to support a specific level of production indefinitely (Rigamonti, Sterpi and Grosso, 2016). Economic sustainability is an apparent problem in the world as it endangers progress due to environmental issues (Griessler and Littig, 2005). The economy is an essential pillar in sustainability as weak economic states hinder sustainability. The three pillar model is vital to understanding the essence of environmental sustainability and the impacts of climatic change. All the three pillars should be incorporated strategically in the system to ensure sustainability has been achieved.

Causes of Climate Change

Climatic changes within the environment can be caused directly or indirectly, depending on the role that man plays. Directly, climate change results due to the increased amount of greenhouse gases in the environment. Greenhouse gases include carbon (IV) oxide, methane, some inert gases, and nitrogen (II) oxide (Szulejko, Kumar, Deep and Kim, 2017). Excessive gases in the atmosphere trap solar radiation, which proves to be increasing heat in the environment. Companies and other organizations that are emitting greenhouse gases to the environment are risking the well being of all individuals in the society. Such gases result in respiratory problems for many people, which can result in their death (Schlesinger, 2017). Greenhouse gases contribute significantly to climate change in the world, and there is a need to control their release to the atmosphere (Szulejko, Kumar, Deep and Kim, 2017). Greenhouse gases absorb heat energy from the sun, which they later emit to the environment as radiant energy. The burning of fossil fuels by humans is also a major contributor to the greenhouse effect. Fossil fuels emit carbon dioxide into the environment, which causes climate change (Kellogg, 2019). Economic activities that human beings take part in within the community are a source of more gases in the environment.

Protecting the environment from pollution can help promote sustainable health within the society. A polluted environment is a source of infectious diseases for many within the community. As such, there is an urgent need to ensure that the environment is kept clean and safe from fatal diseases (Matata and Adan, 2018). Reducing emissions to the environment can protect the lives of many who depend on that environment for fresh oxygen. Direct causes of climate change can be controlled by avoiding activities that increase emissions in the atmosphere. For instance, reducing the use of fossil fuels can promote the health of individuals in the society. Respiratory conditions have claimed many lives in the world, necessitating a change in strategy to better the health of the population. Health sustainability begins with what one eats, source of energy, and hygiene of the surrounding. As such, maintaining sustainable health is directly related to conserving the environment that one lives (Crate and Nuttall, 2016). Direct causes of climate change can be avoided by ensuring that emissions to the environment are reduced. It is the role of the government to engage all stakeholders and devise a strategic plan on how to reduce the release of greenhouse gases to the environment.

Indirect causes of climate change include human activities such as deforestation and agriculture. When humans clear forested land for settlement, the climate is affected as trees play a crucial role in ensuring that the water cycle is complete. Deforestation is destroying the environment, which in turn ends up changing the climate of a particular region. Destroying forests for any other purpose can be consequential to climatic conditions. Forests act as a water catchment area for many rivers, and destroying them will do no good for the environment. To keep proper hygienic standards, water is required in every society. As such, destroying trees can result in a lack of enough water, which can affect the population’s health. The health of a population is a concern for every government across all nations, and maintaining high hygienic standards can be helpful. Human activities play a significant role in facilitating a climatic change (Quaschning, 2019). Examples of other human activities that result in climatic change include mining, manufacturing, and, importantly, the transport industry.

Temperature is a major cause of climatic change in the world. For instance, when the temperature rises above the normal, glaciers and ice melt and adds up water to the oceans, afactor that causes a climatic change. Equally, the warm temperatures lead to the expansion of water, pushing it further up the shores, which results in physical changes. Temperature is a major player in maintaining the vicious hydrological cycle. Plants can take in water through the roots, which later evaporates into the sky to form clouds that come as rain. Temperature impacts all processes that involve water in the environment. There is a need to maintain temperatures at a normal level to avoid changes in the sea level. Climate influences the health of a population at a particular place, which makes it necessary to apply sustainable measures in controlling climate. Temperature increase can be a result of greenhouse gases or an increase in the sea level.

Natural occurrences such as changes in the sun’s energy affect the climate of a particular place (Doyle, 2016). The intensity of the sun that reaches the earth’s surface matters to the climate of a region. As such, changes within the sun have a consequential effect on the climatic conditions. Notably, the changes that happen with the sun during its rotation can result in climate change. Increased heat on the earth will result in changes in the temperature of the atmosphere, which in turn affects the climate. Climate change will have an impact on the environment and the health of the population within a particular place. Also, changes in the reflectivity of the sun upon reaching the earth’s surface can mean a lot to the climate. The more the reflectivity of the sun’s rays, the higher the heat that is absorbed into the atmosphere resulting in climate change. Poor environmental conservation policies result in degradation of the surrounding, which affects the health of a population.

Impacts of Climate Change

Climatic changes have impacted the surrounding to a large extent. For instance, the cost of food has gone high due to the high demand for naturally healthy foods (Iglesias and Garrote, 2015). Encroachment of land meant for cultivation of naturally healthy food has resulted in scarcity, which needs to be addressed. Most foods that are affordable by many in the society have effects on the health of an individual (Acevedo, Harvey and Palis, 2018). Consumption of junk foods has led to many developing diseases such as diabetes and conditions such as obesity. The value of naturally healthy foods is rising, which is worrying those who are unable to purchase such meals. Those who grow such foods use a lot of resources and time in their farms, making the price go high. Moreover, the changes in the climate necessitate that one does irrigate their crops for survival (Deryugina and Shurchkov, 2016). As such, climatic change has resulted in increased food prices all over the world.

Second, climate change has resulted in the scarcity of water, which is essential for the survival of humans, plants, and animals. Water is vital for any living thing within the environment, and failure to protect the catchment areas can attract dire consequences in the near future (Dow and Downing, 2016). Without clean water, the hygiene of a place is threatened, making it hard to maintain the required health standards. Climatic changes lead to inadequate or lack of rain, which risks the availability of water in a particular place (Aponte, de Groot and Wotton, 2016). Water supports life, and efforts to dry catchment areas will be fatal to the whole community. Water is required for drinking, washing, cooking, for manufacturing, and producing power, among others. Hospitals that are mandated to improve and maintain the health of a population also depend on water. Industries that manufacture drugs need water for various purposes, necessitating conservation of water sources (Pedrollo, Kinupp, Shepard Jr and Heinrich, 2016). Conserving the environment ensures the protection of water catchment sources, which advocates for sustainable health within the society.

Climate change can lead to drought and famine within a particular region. Regions that have been hit by severe temperatures have ended up drying with no life in the area. Famine claims the lives of those who have no food for consumption (Van Oort and Zwart, 2018). As such, there is a need to conserve the environment to ensure food sustainability. Failure of humans to protect the environment from encroachment can attract hunger at a later stage. Also, water is responsible for the growth of plants within the surrounding, making it a necessity to protect water catchment areas. The climate of a specific region affects food availability, as rain is essential for the growth of plants. Any change in the climate affects planting and harvesting seasons. Farmers are left with no option than waiting for rains, which results in famine within some communities. A hungry population cannot be healthy, which is a burden for the government. As such, it is vital to conserve the environment for food and health sustainability.

Climatic changes destabilize the economy as resources are required to mitigate the impacts of the change. For instance, when drought and famine strike, it is the role of the government to ensure that residents receive food aid for survival. Such measures are taken after the impact of climatic changes has been felt. The government can use the resources that are applied in such circumstances to better other sectors of the economy. As such, climatic changes can lead to a financial implication for a government or individual. Irrigation schemes are an example of projects that siphon money from the government due to a climatic change. Preventing climatic changes can help many environmentalists avoid spending of resources unnecessarily in a bid to facilitate conservation (Gosling and Arnell, 2016). Besides, diseases that arise due to climatic changes can be costly to the government in charge. The environment should be conserved for posterity and future generations.

Climate changes can lead to increased temperatures that affect human, physical, and biological systems (Burke, Dykema, Lobell, Miguel and Satyanath, 2015). Variations can be noted from the Polar Regions where ice melts to increase the level of water in the sea. Continued melting of glaciers and icebergs at the Polar Regions can lead to submergence of shores bordering such regions. Many phenomena get affected by increased levels of temperature in the atmosphere. It is the role of various government agencies that deal with the environment to step up efforts and ensure stability.

Climate change can also lead to flooding, especially when heavy rains are involved. During such floods, biodiversity is lost, lives are lost, food is destroyed, and resources are required to provide aid. As such, climatic changes can be fatal (Arnell and Gosling, 2016), depending on the impact that they have on the region. Areas that are characterized by low rainfall get affected most during such circumstances. Diseases pop up during floods, and the health of the general population deteriorates (Ranney and Clark, 2016). Climatic changes have significant impacts on the society, which must be controlled to achieve health sustainability.

Adaptation and Mitigation

Mitigation refers to the control of the emission of gases that cause the greenhouse effect on the environment. On the other hand, adaptation refers to the possible strategies that can be applied to cope up with the impacts of climatic changes. In essence, mitigation addresses the causes of climate change while adaptation aims at addressing impacts. To reduce emissions, many should be encouraged to use renewable sources of energy within theenvironment (Aldy and Pizer, 2015). Emissions released to the atmosphere result from the burning of fossil fuels such as coal. The use of such sources of energy in industries has increased the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere resulting in climatic changes. As such, there is a need for people to use fuel that is healthy and environmentally friendly. Besides, the use of public means of transport can reduce emissions from personal cars, which are a significant contributor to the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (Lörcher and Taddicken, 2017). Reducing emissions can ensure sustainability in environmental conservation while ensuring that the health of a population has been considered.

Recycling of resources within the environment can help reduce impacts associated with climatic changes. For instance, the use of renewable sources of energy, such as wind, can help change the narrative for once. The advantage of such sources of energy is that they are not depleted and can be reused in the future. Fossil fuels are burnt once and cause a lot of pollution to the environment, which is not healthy for organisms in the surrounding. As such, recycling waste that is released to the environment can prove sustainable in ensuring a healthy population. Recycling of resources is essential in reducing wastage, which can be useful at a future date.Waste that is left un-recycled such as plastics proves to be an obstacle to achieving sustainable health standards.

The use of devices that consume low amounts of energy can be strategic in reducing possible expenses associated. Some devices that are used in homesteads consumer a lot of energy, which is not economical. To reduce the wastage of water in homesteads, water meters can be used to punish those who are not careful. Water is essential for survival and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. As such, reducing wastage proves to be a sustainable approach to conservingthe environment. Smart energy meters can be used in cases where power is involved in saving energy for the future generations. The main process begins with the conservation of the environment, which provides almosteverything that an individual needs for survival. Restricting energy use can achieve sustainability that is vital in safeguarding the environment for future generations.

The corporate sector should play a critical role in creating awareness of the essence of environmental conservation. If the public becomes fully aware of the importance of environmental conservation, then achieving a sustainable status cannot be difficult. Every stakeholder within the environment should be at the forefront in the fight to achieve health sustainability within the society. Organizations within society can consider giving a hand to acquire desirable environmental conservation standards.

Contemporary Policies

Various national and international policies have been put in place to ensure that the environment is conserved for sustainability. International policies should set standards that bind all bodies with authority to control and preserve the environment. Increased globalization is a reason why policies relating to the environment need to be extended beyond domestic borders. The international environmental policy covers climate protection, sustainable energy policy, protection of biodiversity, and conservation of seas and forests. An example of an international environmental policy is the United Nations Environmental Policy. The aim of the policy is to guide nations formulate sustainable strategies for conservation. The international policy on the environment also covers sustainable waste management, desertification, and protection against hazardous substances. Such policies should be protected and implemented well to ensure that standards are met for a healthier environment (Fernandez, 2018).Multinational organizations that do not comply with the set standards should be faced out of business.

National environmental policy can help maintain a healthy surrounding in the society. For instance, if the national government comes up with a policy that binds operators within the national boundaries, it can be referred to as a national policy. Such policies do not bind operations outside the border as every nation sets its regulations. For instance, it is an offence for manufacturing factories to emit dark smoke to the atmosphere according to the requirements set by the Clean Air Act of 1993 in the UK. The policy is currently under review with Environmental Protection UK keen to ensure it captures sustainable approaches. National policy should aim at making the environment a better place than it is today. Failure of a national government to implement appropriate policies can lead to deteriorated health of a population. National policies can be put in place to penalize those who are not complying with the set standards of environmental conservation. Moreover, national policies can be designed in a way that aims to promote the use of a particular source of energy that is environmentally friendly. With proper national policies, a government can ensure the sustainability of its environmental policy. A proper framework that aims at improving the health of a population sustainably should be introduced at the national level for guidance (Fernandez, 2018).

Local policies can be established and monitored by the government to ensure that the environmentis protected. Such policies should include laws that address water, sanitation, waste management, and preservation of the environment. It is the role of the community to participate in programs that make the environment better collectively.Local environmental policy is an area that is developing since there is a need for each society to act in the best interest. Local authorities should monitor such policies and ensure conformity standards are maintained. Local policies should act as a guide to new members within the society and give direction on what approaches can be used to maintain population health sustainably. For instance, the local government s in the UKmakes laws on areas where people should smoke within the town. The environment is essential to all living things, and conserving it can prove instrumental to all organisms dependent on the surrounding. Local environmental policies can be instrumental in setting the pace that the rest of the generations should follow.

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Organizations that operate within a specified region need to develop strategies that guide their community responsibility programs. A company that participates in community projects gains more popularity in the market and attracts more customers. All organizations have to develop legal framework policies that aim at bettering the environment for mutual existence within the society. The organizational policy should define methods the company uses in disposing of waste and conservation procedures applicable (Stenmark, 2017). Organizational policy can be international or national depending on the operations of the corporation. Proper organization policy builds the reputation of a company for havingan interest in the surrounding. The organizational policy must comply with standards that are set by local, national, and international policies to avoid a contradiction. Environmental policies are key in helping the society maintain a healthy environment for sustainability.


To sum it up, environmental sustainability depends on the approaches that humans are using to protect and conserve the environment. Keeping the environment conserved and neat has a health implication within the society. Poor environmental conservation policies derail the general health of a particular population. Climate change is the major cause of environmental degradation, which has limited the society to some extent. Climate change can be caused directly through greenhouse gases in the atmosphere or indirectly. Greenhouse gases trap more radiation that makes the earth warmer than usual. Increased temperatures within the atmosphere lead to a consequentialchange in the climate of a particular place. Human activities play a key role in promoting climatic changes that have affected many adversely. Examples of activities that result in climate change include deforestation, cultivation, encroachment for settlement land, and some economic activities. Climate change has resulted in hiking of food prices in the world market. Drought and famine are products of climate change as a lack of rain affect the growth of food crops adversely. Furthermore, climate change can attract financial implications on a budget of a particular nation. It is the role of every stakeholder within the society to preserve theenvironment as it is instrumental for survival. National and international environmental policies should act as a guide to environmentalists to spearhead sustainability in relation to human health. Local policies and organizational policies should not contradict the set national policies for more straightforward implementation. There is a correlation between the health of a population and the conservation of the environment. Proper environmental conservation guarantees sustainability in the health of a population.


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