Conflict Analysis

Published: 2021/11/08
Number of words: 2574


The Kashmir dispute is among the world’s longest-running conflicts. Despite six decades of fighting may seem little in historical terms, the battle is usually described in terms of ‘enduring’ and ‘interminable.’ Paul defines it as a “consistent, profound, and long-term inability of objectives between different sides.” This conflict includes India and Pakistan. Either India and Pakistan dispute control of the Kashmir region. Since 1947, the antagonism between India and Pakistan has become a key source of anxiety for the two countries’ peace. The major cause of this dispute between the two countries is the importance of Kashmir in context of public sovereignty, location, and resources. As per India, Kashmir falls to India in its completeness, and both Pakistan and China unjustly demand Indian territory. It is also critical to India’s national security. In the event of a confrontation, without Kashmir, Pakistan and China might join forces, putting India in severe risk. Pakistan has always held the view that Kashmir was illegally surrendered to India by a ruler who did not represent the people.

Furthermore, because the bulk of Muslim-dominated states moved to Pakistan, they feel Kashmir ought to be theirs. Kashmir is Pakistan’s sole direct route to China. Because China is a key ally this is significant for both economic and military purposes. The Kashmir conflict has spawned a slew of interconnected and linked concerns between Pakistan and India, all of which contribute to the conflict’s escalation on a daily basis. India is still utilizing all means possible to inflict harm on the Kashmiri people via its heinous actions in IIOJK. Every other day, they are tormented and slain by Indian security personnel, and they are intimidated into abandoning their Kashmiri culture. Muslim women are forcibly wedded to Hindu pandits in order to weaken the Kashmiri heritage. (Javed)

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Nested Conflict and Timeline Model tackles conflict by determining where its origin is at the structural degree of the society overall, inside the structure of a sub-system, or at the relationship or challenge particular degree and emphasizing how these levels are connected, nested inside each other. As previously said, I evaluate this case in terms of the nature of Kashmir societies and the conflicts between India and Pakistan. The conflict at around i947 where by the end of British control and the division of the sub – continent into Hindu India and the Muslim country of Pakistan. After an invasion by a Pakistani tribal force, the Maharaja of Kashmir accepts an accede contract with India. Pakistan and India declare war on one other over the territory. At the start of the 21 centuries. After militant’s infiltrate from Pakistan-administered Kashmir into Indian-administered Kashmir region, India and Pakistan go to war once more. India condemns the incident, blames Pakistan might be behind it, and severs ties. Efforts to improve ties between the two nations have been hampered by ongoing bloodshed, most memorably an ambush on the assembly of Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir in Samba. Further violence erupted throughout the Kashmir Valley in the 2010s. The unrest in Kashmir started in 2010 with an unsubstantiated staged confrontation between indigenous youth and security personnel. Hundreds of young people assaulted security officers with stones, set fire to government buildings, and assaulted train stations and governmental cars amid escalating violence.

Situation and Attitudes: Main parties’ TRIP goals

Pakistan trip goals

ever since the first Kashmir conflict, the basic reasons of Pakistan’s Kashmir policy have remained unaltered. Its diplomatic efforts, both directly and via raising the matter at various international fora, have been restricted to maligning India and portraying the personal strategy as a failure. Pakistan is constantly telling India to perform its responsibilities as a government and to cease harassing and murdering unarmed Kashmiris. Pakistan claims the bulk of the territory due to its Muslim community, while China claims the nearly unoccupied Aksai Chin and Shaksgam Valley.

India TRIP goals.

Based on a document of accession approved in 1947, India contends the whole former British Indian royal state of Jammu and Kashmir. For several years, a violent uprising opposing Indian authority in the area has claimed tens of thousands of lives. India accuses Pakistan of inciting instability by supporting separatist terrorists in Kashmir, a claim Pakistan rejects.

Conflict Actions: Chosen Conflict Strategy and Tactics of Two Opposing Sides.

The Kashmir conflict has evolved and remained relevant by borrowing ideas and methods from other conflicts. In this scenario, the Afghanistan peace process has just added rigor and vigor to the war. The Kashmir war has persisted by adopting or renaming concepts and methods from other conflicts. Conflicts in contemporary globalized world and digitized globe frequently feed on fresh concepts, since stale plans and tactics are ideal targets for approach is also known and war fatigue.

The Taliban’s techniques of utilizing Pakistani drones to investigate or dump explosives are now being utilized in Kashmir, whereby Pakistani drones are spying or dropping weaponry for terror groupsPakistan, in addition to being a significant contributor of financial and military aid, continues to be a crucial center of philosophical brainwashing for the Kashmiri struggle, most of which is organized through the nation’s expanding system of theological madrasahsMost of these institutions associate the notion of war, which most Muslim leaders understand as “endeavoring for justice,” with guerilla tactics and publicly urge their trainees to fulfill their “spiritual responsibilities” by killing in the service of the pan-Islamic struggle.

Modern India’s security has been a source of concern since its inception, and field troops have been essential to India’s military action since then. The Indian Army’s employ force in mainstream wars in specific, has been regulated by the traditional aggressive doctrine. The doctrine’s concept of success is based on the concept of discouragement by punishment, which holds that India’s menace of unreasonably expensive retribution will persuade its adversary to desist from attack. The Indian military remains structured and prepared to carry out wartime retribution or expense enforcement methods. By the mid-1960s, the orthodox aggressive doctrine had taken center stage, pushed by two pivotal events that demonstrated the Indian military the limitations of the British Raj’s border defensive doctrine.

The first Kashmir war, which lasted from 1947 to 1948, was a light-infantry struggle fought to take control of the contested area. With the majority of the fighting over, India rapidly gained control of Srinagar and the Kashmir Valley This restricted the use of integrated weaponry, let alone other services. However, aviation force was crucial in the conflict, since India launched an air attack on Srinagar airport to execute its propellant loading into Kashmir. This gave Indian troops the opportunity to grab the opportunity, consolidate and consolidate their troop involvement in the critical valley ahead of Pakistan could, and replenish its lead units. The Indian Army has constructed itself around big, combined weapons forces in order to take land, which Indian officials anticipate would be utilized as bargaining in post-war diplomacy. In a conflict, these forces would fight at the organizational level, independent of political direction—once activated by the political establishment, military commanders would be essentially permitted to define their own aims and boundaries. (Tarapore, 2020)


It is critical to illustrate that the Kashmir conflict is a highly complicated conflict with origins dating all the way back to 1836, once the British “East India Company” approved the “Treaty of Amritsar,” which linked the Islamic Kashmir valley with Ladakh and Jammu as a bonus for Raja Ghulab Singh of Jammu’s assistance in gaining this tactfully significant territory. The Kashmir conflict as it is now is not only complicated, but also extremely delicate since people of many ethnic groups see their survival to be jeopardized. The conflict’s dynamic character has an impact on the lives of millions of individuals in economic, cultural, political, and social realms. India should uphold its international responsibilities by conducting a fair and transparent election to enable the individuals of Kashmir to determine their destiny (Bhat, 2020). If the Kashmir dispute is not handled in accordance with UN resolutions, it has the potential to engulf not just this entire area, but also the entire world in a nuclear disaster.

The Kashmir war is not only between Pakistan and India, but also between terrorist organizations in the area demanding independence from Indian authority. Hizbul Mujahideen, the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, which demands sovereignty for Kashmir, and Pakistan, a terror organization with ties to Islamabad and the 2008 Mumbai strikes, are among those organizations. The main cause of the conflict is fresh water and glacier found in the place. Kashmir is conveniently placed and operates as the primary supply of water and electricity production for both India and Pakistan. Control of the region generates a zero-sum competition in which management of the streams and glacier water threatens the other’s existence.

PART # 2

Conflict Intervention Plan

From India’s partition, the South Asian governments of Pakistan and India have been involved in a relatively close fight for possession of the Region of Kashmir. Several battles have been battled between the two countries over this region, with the portions under Pakistan’s control becoming the territory of Azad Kashmir and those under India’s sovereignty constituting the state of Jammu and Kashmir. This war needs to be settled to for people of Kashmir. Several community organizations should be brought on board to solve this issue. United nations organization should help generate peace in Kashmir. UN Peacekeeping assists countries in navigating the arduous transition from violence to peace (Bove et al., 2021). We have distinct advantages, including as legality, burden sharing, and the capacity to send soldiers and police from all over the world.

The UN peacekeeping should integrate with several community-driven organizations, especially those headed by youth and women, exist in Jammu and Kashmir. When the viewpoints of young people are addressed, conflict management and resolution become more persistent. Incorporating youngsters and youth local leaders in peace initiatives, decision-making, and organizational change processes allows them to have a positive effect on regions that immediately affect their life. The UN should use diplomacy to settle Kashmir issue for its people need to enjoy their rights, if diplomacy does not work then force should be applied.

Intervention Strategic Approach

Desired endstate for Kashmir conflict should be retaining peace between the three parties involved. Strategies must encompass all aspects of ‘contact and interaction’ other than the military, because conflict is generated by the human brain and its specific training. There should be an agreed-upon transformative demilitarization program, the fundamental principle of which will be the decrease of military services on either side of the Cease-Fire Line through discontinuation, dissolution, and disarmament in phases that do not inspire anxiety to the citizens on the other edge of the Desist Line at any point. The goal is to decrease the number of armed police officers in the state of Jammu and Kashmir on both sides of the Simply stop Connection to the bare minimum interoperable with maintaining security and community law and order, and to decrease the number of armed officers in the country of Jammu and Kashmir on both sides of the Cease-Fire Connection to the bare minimal level interoperable with maintaining security and native social order, and to lessen the number of security soldiers in the state. The United Nations envoy must be authorized to make any proposals to the governments of India and Pakistan that he believes are probably to help to an expedient and lasting settlement to the Kashmir issue, and to offer his best judgement to them. the main objective of this is to stop conflict and mistreatment of people of Kashmir.

A powerful negotiator, preferably a nation or union of nations that the sides accept will arbitrate the issue, is required to effectively resolve the Kashmir conflict. The willingness to confront the dispute and embrace the aid of a mediator is frequently regarded as a prerequisite for arbitration victory. The United States can be the primary negotiator in resolving the Kashmir dispute. To achieve objectives of retaining peace in Kashmir and terminating the conflict the accommodating strategy should be applied. This will happen through political independence for Kashmir. Kashmir’s liberation from Pakistan and India has nearly entirely come from the individuals of Kashmir. Indeed, surveys performed all through the area in 2010 revealed that 42 percent of those polled in Azad Kashmir and 41 percent of the those polled in Jammu and Kashmir could favor for sovereignty if a plebiscite were held (Kurr, 2015). This is possible intervention because no party will have power over the claimed area.

My theory of change assumed that providing the Kashmir with independences will lead desired outcomes. Then region will acquire community ability to economic practices, sovereignty and social freedom. Kashmir’s women will not be forced to marry Indian’s pundits which has been happening to the region.

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Evaluation Plan

To measure the theory of change several progresses will measured in Kashmir. My theory of change which claims for Kashmir independence means, Kashmir people to have their governance rather than being partitioned between India and Pakistan. Independence fair and free referendum is the appropriate activity to initiate my theory of change in the conflict resolution of Kashmir. Performance measures include:

  • Accessibility of polling stations and the provision of information.
  • The time taken for the result to be declared from the commencement of the count

The activity will be effective if the if the majority will be granted the win and if there will be no conflict after the results. The data which I will collect includes the number of voters, total votes, spoilt votes, yes and no votes. This will help to describe if the elections are valid. The data which will collect is about people say and emotions towards the result, to identify the effectiveness of the referendum activity.


To summarize, the purpose of this part was to identify the major key issues about the elements of the Kashmir dispute from history to current situations that have offered a settlement of the Kashmir conflict. There is no shortage of thoughts on how to end the Kashmir issue, as seen by the preceding description of different suggestions and initiatives designed to resolve the Kashmir conflict. The majority of these suggestions highlight the importance of shifting the fundamentals of the India-Pakistan issue from a negligible fight for Kashmir to a mutually beneficial condition in which all parties benefit from a resolution of the issue. But most surprising is that there is no party which is willing to accept resolution. Basically, the conversation between Pakistan and India over the Kashmir dispute has not provided any substantial answers. The idea for Kashmiri independence, while extremely prevalent in some regions of Kashmir, loses an actual huge amount of support across the territory and provides little reason for Pakistan or India to accept it.


Bhat, S. A. (2019). The Kashmir conflict and human rights. Race & Class61(1), 77-86.

Bove, V., Salvatore, J. D., & Elia, L. (2021). UN Peacekeeping and Households’ Well‐Being in Civil Wars. American Journal of Political Science.


Kurr, N. (2015). Solutions to the Conflict in Kashmir. International ResearchScape Journal3(1), 5.

Tarapore, A. (2020). The Army in Indian Military Strategy: Rethink Doctrine or Risk Irrelevance. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

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