Assessment of Water Quality and Its Effects on the Health of Residents of Missouri Rural Regions of Allenville, Altamont, and Amazonia

Published: 2021/11/04
Number of words: 5302

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction3
2.0 Background Study4
3.0 Literature review6
4.0 Research methodology9
4.1 Research Study area9
4.2 Research tools10
4.3 Research timelines11
5.0 Findings and Discussions12
6.0 Conclusion15

1.0 Introduction

Over 71% of planet earth surface is covered by water, thus making it a valuable natural resource for humans (National Environment Research Council, 2007). The world’s fresh water supply is just 2.5 percent. And of the 2,5 percent, more than 66% remain locked up in glaciers, unable to satisfy the increasing needs of civilization (Ward, 2003). Everyone has a right to clean water; therefore, this is a basic human right. Drinking water, rivers, lakes, and seas are all affected by water pollution, which has an adverse impact on the environment and human health. Gambhir et al. (2012) names several examples of water pollution factors including Sewage and wastewater, global warming, marine dumping, oil pollution, industrial waste, atmospheric deposition, radioactive waste, subterranean storage leaks, eutrophication, etc. Even while water pollution may not have an immediate impact on a person’s health, it may be deadly in the long term. In adjacent lakes and rivers, heavy metals from industrial operations may build up, posing a threat to marine life, other animals that drink the contaminated water, and people who consume animal-derived goods. Acute poisoning, immunological suppression, and reproductive failure may all be caused by the toxins in industrial waste. Infectious illnesses such as typhoid and cholera fever, which are the leading causes of infant and child mortality, are frequently caused by sewage pollution.

Water pollution may have a negative impact on the economy since it is costly to fix and avoid. It is also important to note that non-biodegradable trash is accumulating in the earth’s seas. This is a significant health issue in poor nations, and poses a considerable danger to visitors. According to a report by World Health Organization (2012), Diarrhoeal illnesses are estimated to cause between 1.7 and 2.5 million fatalities globally each year, ranking the third highest compared all infectious disease deaths globally. It has been shown that the majority of these fatalities occur in children under the age of five. There have been a reported 3.2 morbidity attack rate bouts of diarrhoea per kid per year. Although this number may be as high as 12 per kid per year in certain settings in poor nations (World Health Organization, 2012).

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There is increasing evidence that a high illness load in early infancy may have long-term effects on children’s physical and mental development, which might lead to expensive impairments in human fitness and productivity as adults. On the other hand, outbreaks of diseases like typhoid fever and cholera most frequently attack in resource-poor nations, increasing the burden of illness on those who are most susceptible, such as refugees and internally displaced peoples (World Health Organization, 2012). By preventing contaminants from polluting neighbouring waterways, water contamination may be avoided. According to World Health Organization (2012), pollution is prevented by a variety of water treatment methods such as sand filters, chemical additions, and biological filters, among others Water pollution prevention is considerably cheaper than clearing up the mess that has already been made. As a result of these facts, a research was conducted to evaluate the water quality of villages in the district of Roosevelt, Richland, and its impact on the health of people in relation to water-borne illnesses.

2.0 Background Study

The rivers’ water quality is important since they are utilized for a sevaral of purposes, including agriculture & irrigation, drinking water, transportation and infrastructure, hydroelectric generating plants, recreation, tourism, and commercial uses or other human (Chung et al., 2016). To determine the quality of a particular river, many linked characteristics must be considered, including local and temporal variations affected by the annual water flow rate (Peterman & Semlitsch, 2014). A number of hydrological studies have been published in the sustainable water management context that emphasize rivers’ environmental importance. More study has also been done on water quality assessment (Kuechle et al., 2019). Watercourse quality is the focus of this study category, which utilizes a variety of statistical and mathematical methods. Some of the most significant water quality indicators used in studies of water resources quality include the water quality index (W.Q.I.), the water pollution index (W.P.I.) and the river habitat survey (RHS) (Zeinalzadeh & Rezaei, 2017).

It is rare to find research focusing specifically on the quality of the surface water in the Banat hydrographic area, so this research is important since it describes the suitability of surface water sources for human consumption, which can be used to communicate information about the overall water quality to the public. Consequently, to determine the locations of the most significant pollution sources that are responsible for water quality depletion in the River Missouri -Missouri hydrographic basin and its tributaries, an evaluation of Americas largest waterway (River Missouri and Missouri transboundary rivers) has been conducted using the water quality index (W.Q.I.), one of the most reliable indicators (Visescu et., 2017). the system is situated in Missouri, in the western part of the state, and it overlaps two hydrographic basins, called for the hydro-technical works built in the two basins, River Missouri and Missouri rivers

In Montgomery County’s history, the Missouri River is the most significant river. It originates from the Semenic crystalline massif, located beneath the Piatra Goznei Peak, at a height of 1135 m. To reach the confluence site with the Danube in Montgomery, it travels a total distance of 249 kilometres. On the other hand, they affect the geographical environment, especially in terms of water supplies and quality. River Missouri -Missouri hydrographic system water resources management issues include ensuring the necessary water demand by different social-economic goals, preventing harmful impacts of the waters, and maintaining high environmental quality. As a result of water intakes from the river Missouri -Missouri hydrographic system, a change in the river’s hydromorphological level and natural water outflow regime may occur.

During the 19th century, in the Western Plains subsidence area, where many swamps and frequent foods occurred. Based on projects and studies several hydro-technical works were performed for which numerous observations and hygrometric measurements were made. This is in accordance with the EU’s Water Framework Directive (W.F.D. 2000), which specifies that the River Missouri -Missouri watershed has selected a number of watercourses, are well-defined throughout the area for operational surface and soil water monitoring and water quality assessment as follows as explained by (Morar et al., 2019).

3.0 Literature review

A screening study of PPCPs in wastewater treatment plant effluent, groundwater wells, and streams in North-western Washington was performed by Johnson et al. (2004) In effluents, 16 of the 24 chemicals were consistently found, whereas only caffeine, nicotine, and metformin were detected in adjacent streams and groundwater wells, according to the analysis. There is a need for further testing of these three compounds as sewage tracer chemicals, according to the scientists. An EPA/Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) one-day screening study was performed in August 2008 at five municipal wastewater treatment facilities in the Pacific Northwest (Lubliner et al., 2010). A total of 172 organic substances, such as hormones, steroids and semivolatile organic compounds, were evaluated in wastewater influent, secondary effluent, tertiary effluent, and biosolids. PQLs of 2-10ng/L were measured using EPA-approved analytical techniques with low detection limits. There were PPCPs present in all samples. Anti-epileptic drugs such as carbamazepine, fluoxetine, and thiabendazole were largely unaffected by the treatment methods in use. These three PPCPs may possibly function as sewage tracers in local waterbodies, even though that was not the study’s goal, according to its authors.

A research performed by Johnson et al., published in 2012, examined the presence of PPCPs, hormones and sterols in reclaimed water and groundwater in Washington state, among other substances. There were three sites where samples were taken: Lacey, Quincy, and Yelm. Water from these facilities is used to replenish local groundwater sources. There were only 15 identified in groundwater samples of the 145 chemicals that were examined. The medicines (or their metabolites) used to treat high blood pressure were the most often found, followed by antidepressants and antibiotics. Carbamazepine, meprobamate, and sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic) were shown to be effective as groundwater tracers at these sites, according to the authors. All recovered water and groundwater samples taken in the recharge region of each plant contained these three chemicals.

Centre for Urban Waters researchers of University of Washington Tacoma worked with Kitsap Public Health District to assess the usefulness of a suite of emerging pollutants utilization as tracers of bacterial pollution along the Puget Sound coastline (Tian et. al., 2019). Twenty minor freshwater discharge sites were sampled and examined to identify over 20 CECs typically linked with human waste, as well as many pesticides. Sucralose (an artificial sweetener) was one of many potential tracer chemicals that the authors investigated. As a tracking agent, sucrose has showed promise. During the Water Quality Assessment and Monitoring Study, King County performed a preliminary presence-absence study on a variety of pharmaceuticals in ambient waters in the Duwamish Estuary, Elliott Bay and Lake Union/Ship Canal (King County, 2017). As a result of its presence in surface waters, metformin has excellent potential as a tracer. Over the 3 ng/L detection limit, concentrations as high as 786 ng/L were found. In the research, 52.9 percent of the chemicals were detected, which is higher than most other substances.

For the first time in the United States, medicines, hormones, and other organic wastewater pollutants were tested in surface water. Water samples collected from 139 streams between 1999 and 2000 were analysed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Eighty-two of the 95 analytes tested were found. In addition to cholesterol, coprostanol, and N, N-diethyltoluamide, caffeine is a stimulant, triclosan is a disinfectant, tri(2-chloroethyl)phosphate is a flame 4-nonylphenol and retardant/plasticizer, is an antioxidant. There are measurable amounts of pollutants in streams across the United States, according to the study’s findings Only a handful of these chemicals were found in stormwater or surface runoff, despite the fact that many of them went through wastewater treatment procedures.

Scientists from the United States Geological Survey and Environmental Protection Agency performed a nationwide investigation to identify possible markers of human waste (Glassmeyer et al., 2005). Water quality samples from upstream and downstream of 10 wastewater treatment facilities in the United States were collected and evaluated as part of this research. From each treatment facility, a single effluent sample was taken. For 110 organic compounds, samples were tested to see whether there was any connection between the presence of these chemicals and known human waste sources. In the sampling sites, the number of chemicals identified varied from 3 in a background sample to 50 in an effluent sample. Researchers found that over 35 distinct compounds may be helpful as markers of human wastewater sources, according to the study’s findings Human sewage traces included carbamazepine, diphenhydramine (antihistamine), caffeine, and coprostanol, among others.

In Jamaica Bay, an estuary in New York City and Nassau County, New York, other USGS researchers, Benotti and Brownawell (2007), examined a broad variety of PPCPs in Jamaica Bay. Wastewater effluent discharges have a significant impact on this estuary (multiple treatment plants, large CSOs, and one large landfill). We wanted to show that many persistent chemicals might be used as sewage tracer. CSO (or untreated sewage) inputs into a coastal system were also measured using degradable chemicals, such as coffee. Nicotine, caffeine, and paraxanthine (caffeine metabolite) were the most frequently identified substances. Sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic) was also often found and did not seem to be removed throughout the course of therapy. Researchers determined that carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole would be helpful as tracers of treated sewage effluents because of their poor wastewater treatment clearance rates.

To determine if sewage pollution was present in drinking water sources in 2012, Canadian researchers looked at PPCPs and caffeine as potential markers (Daneshvar et al., 2012). It was shown that coffee, naproxen (anti-inflammatory pain medication), trimethoprim (antibiotic), and gemfibrozil had the greatest frequency of detection (> 99 percent) (lipid regulator). A substantial difference in elimination efficiency was also found between carbamazepine and caffeine, according to the research team. As a result of the therapy, caffeine was more easily eliminated from the body. Using caffeine as a tracer for untreated sewage pollution, and carbamazepine as a tracer for treated wastewater, the researchers came to the following conclusions:

MWH Laboratories’ liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry equipment was utilized by Eaton and Haghani (2012) to analyze about 90 analytes of interest from lists of approved indicators of sewage. The effluent monitoring program of the Santa Ana Watershed Project Authority (SAWPA) in summer 2010 and 2011 included sampling at 17 sites. Selected samples were taken from the Santa Ana River and wastewater treatment facilities. To identify the best indicators, the recommended components were compared to studies throughout the nation from different sources (such as drinking water and distribution networks). A broader list of possible sewage tracers was needed to decrease ambiguity. Researchers found that none of the compounds on lists from SAWPA, California’s State Board of Water Resources, the Water Research Foundation, and the National Water Research Institute were appropriate.

4.0 Research methodology

4.1 Research Study area

Water-borne illnesses in Missouri rural regions were assessed via a cross-sectional research conducted in the villages of Allenville, Altamont, and Amazonia

4.2 Research tools

An online semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview a total of 200 people. Participants gave their informed permission before the interview began. Participants filled out a questionnaire on their daily life, water use, storage habits, personal hygiene practices and illness encounters in order to provide detailed descriptions of their experiences. Statisticians evaluated the collected data using SPSS. When evaluating the quality of a particular body of water and the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I.) is a quantitative term that is intended to be readily understood by managers from various nations (Bouslah et al., 2017). This first formula, which takes into account all characteristics required to determine surface water quality and represents a composite impact of various factors relevant to water evaluation and management, was developed by Horton in 1965. (Tyagi et al., 2013). These changes in physical and chemical properties of moving water were initially noted using this index (Poonam et al., 2013). The water quality index is most often employed in surface water quality assessments. A mathematical equation that combines data from various factors ranks the quality of waterbodies on a scale of 1 to 100, which may be divided into five classes, each with a distinct quality condition and varied use domain (Tyagi et al., 2013). The following arithmetic expression is among the most common formulae used to calculate the W.Q.I.

A weighted mean shall be employed in order to find the aggregate the values of various variables since each one is more significant than the others. Water Quality Intervals (W.Q.I.) quality intervals are used to classify the water quality condition. A W.Q.I. score of 80 or above indicates that the station meets state water quality requirements, while a score between 40 and 80 shows that the station is “marginally concerned.” A score below 40 indicates that the station has not met expectations and is “very concerned”. A selection of criteria has been developed based on the Global Quality Classes created via the rules governing the categorization of water quality sorces in order to determine the ecological condition of water sources in order to arrive at these values. Two important parameters (total coliforms and turbidity) could not be considered Since the criterion of the total coliform is only assessed in areas where water is meant for drinking and turbidity from the sample has not been taken into consideration.

All measuring devices have to be calibrated to the same scale in order to compute the water quality index values from each sample area examined. According to the particular approach, which analyses each parameter’s function in determining the water bodies’ condition and aquatic ecosystems, the degree of participation of each parameter has been determined (Poonam et al., 2013). On the Missouri River and Missouri River, the W.Q.I. was calculated using the mean yearly quality parameter, that were recorded at the 6 monitoring sites.

4.3 Research timelines

In all, the research took 4 months to complete, from August to November 2009. With the assistance of sterile test tubes, researchers began by collecting water samples from communities across the region. To test for microorganisms, water samples were delivered Clean, sterile test tubes in the laboratory within 24 hours. These samples were collected from the village’s main water source. Since these sources are widely used, analysing water samples from them would serve the aim of saving resources. There were nine water samples taken from each community to determine the microbiological quality, chemical, and physical, of the drinking water. With the use of a random sample method, the home locations were selected at random. Conventional techniques were used to measure physical characteristics at the water’s surface. The chemical concentrations of copper, chromium, and zinc were determined by standard photometric analysis. Coliform counts were presumptive and verified using colony count and most likely number methods in a microbiological evaluation utilizing Nutrient agar and MacConkey agar

5.0 Findings and Discussions

We have calculated a long-term (2010-2017) Water Quality Index and applied it to 10 sampling sections along River Missouri and Missouri rivers with respect to the mean annual, the minimum annual, and maximum annual values of 7 physical chemical and biological parameters in order to assess River Missouri and Missouri rivers’ water quality. Typical water quality metrics from the Missouri River (temperature and turbidity), the Missouri River (nitrates, total phosphorus and pH.), and the Missouri River (biochemical oxygen demand, oxygen saturation) are shown, along with the findings of data analysis.

In terms of length, the Missouri River is North America’s longest river. Mount Rushmore is its source, and it runs south and east for 2,340 miles until it meets the Mississippi River north of St. Louis. According to the minimum and mean annual readings, the water quality is in excellent condition. Water quality in all other parts is classified as “marginal concern” since only the maximum yearly values dropped, causing a medium state of water quality (50–70 percent) (Table 3). For example, agricultural activities, municipal and industrial wastewater, and farm manure all contribute to the high nitrate concentrations in River Missouri. The values of the W.Q.I for these stations fall into the moderate category.

Several variables affect the water quality of the Missouri River, including the amount and composition of biogenic and organic chemicals. Decomposition of organic compounds is the source of all biogenic materials found in water bodies. As a consequence, the balance of biogenic elements is directly related to river species’ vitality. Furthermore, this river is distinguished by various contaminants in its natural condition, whose composition relies on the soil’s types from the receiving basin, wastewater spillage from different kinds of operators, and the dissolving capability of atmospheric gases among other things (Abbaspour et al., 2015). The concentration of nitrates in unpolluted rivers fluctuates between a few tenths of mg/l.

Nitrates in the flowing water are mostly due to urban wastewaters being flushed off (Veum et al., 2019). In Lugoj, N-NO2 concentrations are nearly twice as high, and the water quality has deteriorated from excellent to moderate, based on maximum yearly values. There are many portions of river in the upper side of the Missouri River that have the greatest water quality in terms of average and minimum yearly levels. As a result, water quality in the Missouri River has deteriorated from the oara River to the American Missouri border (50–70 percent – medium state).

As a consequence of demographic features and human activity on the one hand, and industrialization and urbanization on the other, River Missouri – Missouri hydrographic basin’s water quality has deteriorated. Most of the surface and groundwater pollution in this area is caused by untreated wastewater discharged by industry and homes as well as agricultural contamination (sewer water from rural communities, livestock industry and farms) (Kim et al., 2014). The inhabitants (approximately 1 million individuals) and the urban residents from cities like River Missouri oara, Buzias, Lugoj, Recas, Faget, and Caransebes, Ciacova, generate organic loading through animal husbandry, land use, and industrial activities resulting in a stress on the surface water.

Water quality in Missouri’s rivers and streams has been affected by excessive levels of nitrogen compounds such as nitrate, nitrites and ammonium ions, which are found in high concentrations in monitoring areas downstream of the wastewater discharge. When you leave Banat country, the waters of the River and the Missouri River are heavily polluted due to the effects of urban wastewater, agricultural waste, as well as natural causes such as erosion in their hydrographic basins (De Filippis et al., 2020). Increasing chemical fertilizer usage and greater densities of animals in fewer spaces, particularly in animal farming complexes from the River Missouri -Missouri hydrographic basin has led to increased nitrate contamination of water.

For example, the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics in this basin differ from one monitoring station to the next owing to differences in surface water hydrology, as well as differences in their origin and behaviour. When it comes to the development and impact of water processes leakage on rivers in this hydrographic system, human factors play a major role (Akula et al., 2020). In the Missouri River -Missouri hydrographic basin, S.C. Aquatim S.A. is the major economic player. Public water and wastewater services are provided by this business to River Missouri oara Municipality as well as several other settlements in the area (Ondoa, 2019). The assessment of the ecological state of surface watercourses (rivers) within the River Missouri -Missouri hydrographic system during the studied period (2004-2014) showed that most rivers were in excellent ecological condition.

ANPM-River Missouri Environment Protection Agency, River Missouri) concluded that most rivers had a good chemical state, and just a few had a poor chemical condition. There are a number of heavily modified surface watercourses (rivers) in this basin, and they have a moderate ecological potential, with the exception of a few that have good ecological potential. In terms of chemical status, more than half of the surface watercourses had a decent chemical status, while less than 50% had a poor chemical status. A similar assessment of surface reservoirs the three within the basin showed that all three had a modest potential ecological and were in excellent chemical condition. Due to national and European legislation, measures to treat urban wastewaters and reduce phosphorous and nitrogen pollution from the pollutant concentrations and agricultural practices, recorded at stations of monitoring on the basin rivers have decreased significantly in recent years. Waste Deposit Part a, which lacks environmental protection measures, is another source that affects the surface and subsurface water quality in this hydrographic region.

Zinc is a highly important element in humans, however it may have some hazardous consequences at extremely high quantities. Skin, ocular and mucous membranes are astringent corrosive chemicals. It causes specific kinds of dermatitis called “zinc pox.” Zinc also irritates and causes nausea and vomiting to the digestive system. According to the World Health Organisation, the maximum zinc in drinking water is 15 ppm (WHO). Zinc concentration levels were below the maximum allowed limit in all water samples of the research according to WHO (1996) standards (Patil and Ahmed, 2011).

Chromium is also important in fatty and carbohydrate metabolism for organisms as a micronutrient. Chromium in its lower oxidation state is likewise more dangerous (III). Potential carcinogenics are chromium and chromate. The chromium limit in drinking water is 0.01 ppm per WHO. The chromium content readings of all water samples were over the maximum allowed level in accordance with WHO (1996) standards. This is a significant health danger and should be examined by the authorities involved. Study limitations include limited sample size; resource restrictions have not examined fluoride, chlorine, and other heavy metals. Long-term consequences of these findings in the sample population were not investigated.

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6.0 Conclusion

Results of this paper show that water quality has declined downstream of two transboundary rivers (the Rivers Missouri and Missouri), which originate from two different hydrographic basins, with the River Missouri River’s W.Q.I. values ranging from 85 to 57 and the Missouri River’s values ranging from 84 to 60, respectively. However, the river’s upper reaches have had higher water quality than the river’s lower reaches. D.O., temperature, pH, BOD5, total phosphorus and slurry readings have significantly declined rivers of downstream, which suggests that local contaminants may be contributing gradually to the loss of river quality. There are three types of control sections in the investigated region that are assigned W.Q.I. values.

Agricultural, residential and industrial activity in the vicinity of the sample sites in the River Missouri – Missouri hydrographic basin determines the water quality index trend. To ensure that the water quality of the Missouri River and other Missouri rivers is maintained at an optimal level in accordance with Water Framework Directive, constant monitoring is required, rivers flow further especially because through Missouri before discharging to Tisa and Danube rivers. In particular, this paper addresses the necessity to execute current bilateral international agreements and to apply this European regulation to enhance water quality and quantity obtained by a shared watershed downstream. The River Missouri – Missouri hydrographic basin, shared by 15 states. Anthropogenic demand on water resources must be in order to determine the quality of the waters in this area of Missouri that has so many transboundary rivers. Improving management of wastewater via the building of modern and efficient wastewater treatment facilities is essential to protecting the environment and preserving excellent water quality, especially in the transboundary rivers of Banat, which are shared by two nations and numerous towns.


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