Research Study on the Development of Sustainable Energy and Its Current Situation: India
Number of words: 21825
The following research study has focused on the development of sustainable energy and its current situation in India. At the same time, it has also been critically assessed the Indian policy to make it better in future while determining all the gaps. However, it has been found that renewable energy has become a critical aspect that interacts significantly with environmental, economic and social dimensions for sustainable development across the world. According to the research report, it has been pointed out that a lot of countries in the world including India have made the most progress by adopting sustainable development policies. The introduction chapter covers the aim, objectives, background, rationale behind choosing the subject of the study. However, it can be pointed out that renewable energy has become an important asset that interacts critically with these environmental, economic and social dimensions for sustainable development. Additionally, it was also determined that although there are the greatest barriers, a number of countries including India have made the most progress in adopting policies. Eventually, this research study is justified and crucial as it conducts very important details about policies in regard to the development of sustainable energy. However, the next chapter will critically analyse the factor based on previous research.
From the literature review it can be understood that energy is considered as being the most crucial building component in human evolution, as well as a crucial ingredient influencing any nation’s long-term development. Conventional sources cast a threatening shadow over the current as well as future global security, environmental aspect, health, alongside society as a whole. India is the world’s third largest power consumer and third biggest sustainable energy generator, having renewable energy accounting for 38 percent (136 Gigawatts from out 373 Gigawatts) of overall installed power capacity throughout 2020. A more holistic approach can be drawn in demand accumulation. A specific model consolidated into the GoI’s Phase II interconnecting RTS scheme.
To pursue this particular study project, the researcher decided to use positivist philosophy to gather and analyse data on sustainable energy development and its current state in India. The researcher picks the descriptive style of research strategy for conducting the study, which is based on the existing condition and development of sustainable energy and its sources in India. The researcher uses a secondary form of data gathering approach for the progress of a specific study project that is based on the current state of sustainable energy in India and its future development. To carry on with the investigation, the researcher decided to use positivist philosophy to collect and analyse data on sustainable energy development and its current state in India. The researcher picks the descriptive style of research strategy for conducting the study since it is based on the existing status and development of sustainable energy and its sources in India.
In the conclusion chapter, there is a linking with objectives sections along with relevant recommendations regarding this topic. Future scope and limitations of this research area are also mentioned.
Chapter 1: Introduction
This research study emphasizes the development of sustainable energy and the current situation in India. Meanwhile, the main purpose of this thesis is to critically analyze Indian policies and compare them with similar policies around the world. However, it will help to understand the future trends in sustainable energy development in India. By taking all these factors into consideration, the following introduction chapter will include a brief outline of the chosen topic including the key aim and objectives of the research. Apart from that, the research questions and the justified reasons for doing this research will also be encrypted. In the end, the chapter will define the dissertation structure of the entire research.
Sustainable energy development mainly involves the use of energy resources for human consumption in a manner that supports endurable development. On the other hand, according to WCED (or The World Commission on Environment and Development), it can be defined that Sustainable energy development is a development that can meet the requirements of the present without undermining the ability of upcoming generations to accomplish their own demands. However, it has three main points of view such as environmental, economic, and social. Each perspective corresponds to a system (and domain) with a different driving force and purpose (Su et al., 2020). Consequently, it can be demonstrated that renewable energy has become an important resource that critically interacts with these environmental, economic and social dimensions for sustainable development. In contrast, it was also pointed out that the policymakers are facing a number of challenges for implementing policies, which can improve a country’s performance based on those dimensions, specifically since there is no strong form of sustainable energy in all three dimensions.
Fossil fuels continue to outperform renewables in both reliability and affordability. On the other hand, wind and solar energy are many cleaning products, but they still work intermittently and are still very expensive than other conventional energy. In consequence, it can be determined that a few decades ago, all the countries around the world acquired 17 ambitious sustainable policy goals to protect the world, end poverty, promote equality as well as prosperity through the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda and set core goals by 2030 (Qureshi et al., 2019). It is one of many sustainable development goals in the world for expanding access to electricity, increasing the availability of clean cooking fuels, reducing subsidies for wasted energy, and reducing the deadly air pollution that causes millions of premature deaths every year around the world. However, one of these sustainable goals, commonly recognized as SDG 7, aims to assure accessibility towards sustainable, affordable, modern and reliable energy for all through the end of the upcoming decades (iea.org, 2021). Eventually, it can be defined that the adoption of these specific energy goals for sustainable development is a turning point of the global movement in the direction of more equitable and sustainable systems as well.
1.3 Aim and Objectives
This particular research study has focused on the development of sustainable energy and its current situation in India. It is also going to critically assess the Indian policy to make it better in future. However, in order to accomplish this research aim, the research project need to be articulated the following research objectives –
- To define the current situation of sustainable energy in India
- To critically analyse the Indian policy, and compare it with similar policies around the globe while identifying the gaps
- To determine the future development trend of sustainable energy in India by generating the recommendation in policies
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the current situation of sustainable energy in India?
- What is the difference between Indian policy and similar policies around the world and what are the gaps in it?
- What recommendations in policies can be helpful for the future development trend of sustainable energy in India?
Sustainable energy policies are consolidating in Low, middle and High-income nations after a decade of rapid development everywhere. Previously, it was pointed out that nearly 37% of countries covered by Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy or RISE have set national renewable energy targets for 2010. Conversely, as of 2019, 99% of countries in the world have established or initiated a comprehensive legal framework for sustainable energy sources (Gunnarsdóttir et al., 2020). One-third of the total countries globally improved their sustainable energy policy frameworks by placing them in the green zone of the report, whereas 44% remained in the yellow zone, which indicates room for improvement. Apart from that in 2017–2019 as the overall sustainable energy gap narrowed between low- and high-income countries. In other words, it can be defined that almost every country has a sustainable energy policy for energy, but only one-third of the parties have a strict or clear goal/ plan for development.
This follows remarkable progress since 2010 in high- and low-income countries in Asia (India, Bangladesh, Mongolia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Latin America- Guatemala, Nepal and China). According to the Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy (RISE, 2020), almost every country in the world has made progress on sustainable energy policies between 2017 and 2019, in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a very rapid improvement (worldbank.org, 2021). At the same time, among all the countries with the greatest barriers to electricity access, Tanzania, India, Bangladesh, Nigeria and Ethiopia have made the most progress in adopting policies.
In this consequence, it can be revealed that India is the third most leading country for consumers of electricity across the world and the third-largest sustainable energy producer globally with 38% (136 GW of 373 GW) of the total established energy capacity in 2020 from endurable sources. In other words, it can be defined that the country’s Renewable Energy Attractiveness Index (or RECAI) ranks India’s 3rd after the United States and China.
Figure 1: Ambitious new targets based on policy for sustainable energy share in India
(Source: energsustainsoc.biomedcentral.com, 2021)
According to the revised Renewable Purchase Obligations (or, RPO, regulation act in June 2018), the country has set a goal of 21% sustainable energy in total electricity consumption by 2022, March. However, it was found that in 2014 the same target was 15% and in 2018 it will increase to 21%. In 2016, as per the nationally planned contribution from the Paris Agreement, India committed to generating 40% of its total energy from non-fossil fuel sources by 2030. Currently, this is India’s key and major target (energsustainsoc.biomedcentral.com, 2021). In 2018, the Central Electricity Authority of India set a goal of generating 57% of the total power from non-fossil fuel sources within 2027. However, it was known that India has also set a target by 2022 to produce 175 GW and by 2030 to generate 450 GW from sustainable energy (Laha et al., 2020). Therefore, this research study is justified and important to carry out as it will contribute more details and/or information about Indian policy (and others) regarding the development of sustainable energy along with its current situation to the other learners, researchers.
1.6 Dissertation Structure
This dissertation mainly included six chapters along with references and appendices. In other words, the dissertation is divided into:
Chapter 1: Introduction
The introductory chapter provides the background of the current perspective as well as the objectives and aim of conducting the entire study. Additionally, it will also determine the key research questions. On the other hand, the rationality of conducting the research based on its current issue is also broadly justified along with a brief description of the entire dissertation.
Chapter 2: Literary Review
This second chapter will critically assess as well as summarize other research results and research arguments. In addition, this section reviews information from previous research and pursues several theories and/or models on the subject to present the particular research more accurately.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
In the research methodology chapter, a number of research techniques, methods or procedures are identified. This is for example research philosophy, research approach, research design, which helps the researcher to carry out the whole study by gathering, interpreting as well as analyzing relevant research data.
Chapter 4: Data Findings and Analysis
In this chapter, the data will be collected with the chosen technique while critically analyzing those data.
Chapter 5: Discussion
This chapter discusses the main results of the data analysis chapter.
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendations
This last chapter is a synchronized evaluation of the results of this research project including the limitations. In the end, the chapter also contributed to a number of related recommendations for improvisation and continuing the research.
This chapter covers the aim, objectives, background, rationale behind choosing the subject of the study. However, it can be pointed out that renewable energy has become an important asset that interacts critically with these environmental, economic and social dimensions for sustainable development. Additionally, it was also determined that although there are the greatest barriers, a number of countries including India have made the most progress in adopting policies. Eventually, this research study is justified and crucial as it conducts very important details about policies in regard to the development of sustainable energy. However, the next chapter will critically analyse the factor based on previous research.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
The primary goal of the research study includes enlargement of renewable energy for advancement in the economical factor of India. This chapter will highlight the current situation of sustainable energy in India and will analyse the current governmental policies and their impact on the country. Other than this, it will also use theoretical approaches to better analyse this matter.
2.2 Conceptual Framework
Figure 2.2: Conceptual Framework
(source: as per the learner)
2.3 Main Analysis
2.3.1 Define the current situation of sustainable energy in India
Figure 2.3.1 Define the current situation of sustainable energy in India
(source: Dubash et al., 2018)
From the above figure it can be seen that one of the choices for meeting this criteria is renewable source of energy. Renewable energy now accounts for around 33 percent of India’s main energy intake. India is gradually embracing ethical renewable energy technologies, reducing carbon emissions, cleansing the air, as well as assuring a much more viable future.
Energy is considered as being the most crucial building component in human evolution, as well as a crucial ingredient influencing any nation’s long-term development. Conventional sources cast a threatening shadow over the current as well as future global security, environmental aspect, health, alongside society as a whole. As a result, there has been a pressing requirement in India’s electricity sector to encourage renewable energy. Renewable energy derived from renewable assets like sunlight, wind, tides, waves, rain, and geothermal heat that are naturally regenerated on a human timespan. This is the purest energy source, emitting the fewest carbon emissions and causing the least contamination. This contributes to a reduction in the use of coal as well as fossil fuels. It is possible to enhance air quality, decrease the amount of greenhouse gases, generate new businesses and opportunities, and contribute to the world’s transition to a greener, safer, and more economical energy by expanding renewable energy.
India is the world’s third largest power consumer and third biggest sustainable energy generator, having renewable energy accounting for 38 percent (136 Gigawatts from out 373 Gigawatts) of overall installed power capacity throughout 2020. India was ranked third in the 2021’s Ernst & Young’s (EY) Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index, behind the United States as well as China (Ibef.org, 2021). The country also has a massive amount of renewable assets and among the world’s largest projects for installing renewable energy goods and infrastructure. Additionally, India is by far the only nation throughout the world with a dedicated ministry of renewable energy production, the New and Renewable Energy ministry, which has begun among the most comprehensive and extensive renewable energy projects across the globe. Renewable energy has become a big participant in India over the decades, particularly in terms of electricity production capacity. This supports the government’s sustainable development agenda while also helping to fulfill the country’s energy needs.
The Government of india has undertaken several initiatives during last 2 years, including introducing the solar parks concepts, hosting Renewable Energy-Invest 2015—which is a worldwide investors’ conference, introducing a huge grid-connected photovoltaic pv curriculum, allocating Rs.38,000 Cr for a Sustainable Energy Corridor, increasing the clean and healthy environment surcharge from Rs.50 to Rs.400 each tonne, and introducing solar pump schemes (Ibef.org, 2021).
Current Government Initiative:
Some initiatives introduced by the India Government to enhance the country’s sustainable energy industry are as below:
- A modern Hydropower policy, which span for 2018 to 2028 has been documented for the country’s hydro projects growth
- The India Government also has announced astrategies to adopt a USD 238 million Mission on sophisticated ultra-supercritical solutions for cleaner utilization of coal
- The New and Renewable Energy ministry also has planned to offer custom as well as excise duty advantages to the sector of solar rooftop, which in effect will reduce the setting up cost and also generate power, which lead to the boosting growth.
- By the year 2016 to 2017, the State Biogas and Animal waste Management System has erected almost 4.96 million household-sized biogas plants across the country.
- The country’s Railways is stepping up its efforts to reduce emissions by 33 percent by the year 2030 through implementing long-term energy efficiency measures as well as maximising the clean fuel usage.
India is quite well placed to meet the aggressive renewable energy objectives if the necessary investments within green technologies are made. The country’s transformation to a fully sustainable energy infrastructure will be aided by the search for cleaner energy. With 1.39 billion inhabitants, India is primarily the 4th biggest carbon emitter across the world, with the electricity market accounting for the majority of the emissions (Ibef.org, 2021). Nevertheless, India has achieved great development in the sustainable energy field in recent times. Concerns about global climate shift have prompted the Indian government to draught a thorough plan for universal access to clean as well as sustainable energy. According to research conducted by Finland’s LUT university, India has a huge potential to transition to a totally sustainable electricity grid by 2050 due to its wealth of renewable assets (Ibef.org, 2021). This is feasible if everybody can make use of advanced technologies. The future of sustainable energy throughout India appears bright, with more than 293 global as well as domestic firms committing to produce 266 Gigawatts of solar, wind, mini hydel, and biomass-based energy in the country over the upcoming year. This would require an investment of a total of $310 – $350 billion (Ibef.org, 2021). India possessed 96.96 Gigawatts of sustainable energy capacity as of the year 2021, July accounting for 25.2 percent of total built in power capacity, presenting a significant opportunity regarding the construction of sustainable data centres (Ibef.org, 2021).
By 2030, the country hopes to have developed renewable energy production of around 450 gigawatts (GW), with solar accounting for roughly 280 Gigawatts (almost 60 percent) (Ibef.org, 2021). Renewable power production capacity has grown rapidly in recent years, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) reaching 15.51 percent during Financial Year 2016 and Financial Year 2021. In Financial Year 2021, India has 94.4 Gigawatts of renewable power capacity (Ibef.org, 2021). In the year 2021, July India built hydro capacity which reached 46.3 Gigawatts, while minor hydro plants had a 4.8 Gigawatts capacity. Wind power proposals totaling 15,100 MW were offered by 2019, with 12,162.50 Megawatts of potential already awarded (Ibef.org, 2021). During Fiscal Year 2019-2020, India generated 127.01 billion components of electricity through renewable energy outlets (Ibef.org, 2021). Northern India has been predicted to become the country’s renewable energy powerhouse, with a maximum utilization of 363 Gigawatts with policies focusing on the sustainable energy sector.
The biggest solar power installation established underneath the ‘Make in India’ which is the central government’s program, with a potential of 1.5 Megawatts, was completed in 2020 at the Indian Airbase in Ladakh (Ibef.org, 2021). The government also launched a 4,500 cr manufacturing linked incentive program for greater-efficiency solar photovoltaic modules production over a 5-year term in 2020 (Ibef.org, 2021). Energy Saving Services Limited, which is a partnership of Public sector enterprises underneath the Power as well as theNew and Renewable Energy Department Ministry, Goa, entered an agreement on 17th November, 2020 in order to negotiate the government’s rollout of the country’s maiden Convergence Project.
2.3.2 Critically analyse the Indian policy, and compare it with similar policies around the globe while identifying the gaps in sustainable development
Figure 2.3.2 Indian policy regarding Renewable Energy
(source: Su et al., 2020)
The above figures state that the Government of India, through the New and RE ministry, has made the very first step throughout this approach by committing to a 25 percent RE mix by the year 2022. This amounts to 175 gigawatts of renewable energy capacity.
India is basically a developing nation with the largest democracy in the world. However, it faces a peak load shortage of roughly 14% as well as a power shortfall of 8.4 percent.To meet this rising need, the country imports 70 percent of their oil, which has been expected to rise to 85 percent in the following decade alongside 92 percent by the year of 2020. As a consequence, India’s power generation from renewable energy sources should be reviewed. Wind energy is by far the most feasible option among the different options available, since it can give excess power to the nation (Gunnarsdóttir et al., 2020). This excess electricity necessitates suitable government assistance and also public demand. To this purpose, the commercial sector is considered as setting the pace in capturing wind power, while government backing is lacking. The major wind-generating nations, like the United States, Germany, Spain, as well as China, have maintained their wind-harvesting positions. Despite the fact that China is continually improving their wind output, Denmark will not be able to create electricity at a rising rate and has already accomplished all it can. The carbon concentration ofthe around the world economy—in kilograms of carbon (kgC) per U.S. dollar of net worldwide yield (GWP)—declined from 0.35 in1970 to zero.24 kg in 2000. This lessening is break even with a normal yearly decrease in carbon profundity of roughly 1.3 percent. more noteworthy these days, be that as it may, the charge of decrease in carbon profundity has begun to slow and indeed inverse.
It has wind-saturated its onshore regions, supplying 19.6 percent of their total electricity, and therefore is working to develop advanced off-shore solar farm technology. Despite this, India continues to slide down towards the slippery path, allowing other nations to pass it.
Important Aspects of Indian Policy regarding RE development:
In 2002, the Kyoto Protocol signed the Clean Growth Mechanism.
For the very first time, the 2003 Electricity Act allowed for production, distribution, as well as transportation at the national along with state levels, as well as the establishment of Renewable Portfolio Guidelines in states (Built Wind Energy Capacity, 2010)
Wind farms will be eligible for 80 percent accelerated amortization more than one or two years, as well as a ten-year tax break, as well as favourable conditions on wheeling, financing, and 3rd-party sales, including lower customs as well as excise charges for certain equipment.
Provision for a National Production Driven Incentive (0.5/Kilowatt hours) in 2009, in addition to current subsidies, MNRE bears a financial assistance of 2/3 of the cost of the project (maximum of 2.00 cr each 100KW) (Su et al., 2020). IREDA offers captive power plants with a total potential of 200KilloWatt and financial assistance of approximately 4%.
The State Nodal Authority receives 2.5 percent of the commission’s portion of project costs. Certain portions of the nation, such as the North-East, Jammu & Kashmir’s mountainous areas, and Himachal Pradesh, receive 20 percent to 50 percent higher subsidies than other regions. Research & Development funding is paid approximately 100 percent for government bodies as well as 50 percent for private organisations. In some extreme cases, foreign enterprises may be eligible for subsidy assistance.
A few of the arguments that highlight out the flaws regarding India’s government policies are stated below:
First and foremost, India does not even have any proper National Sustainable Energy Policy. As a result, state governments are primarily responsible for promoting renewable power, and hence subsidies, tariffs, as well as power acquire agreements range from one region to the next. This does not, unlike China, require electric utilities to acquire a certain quantity of renewable energy and impose penalties if they do not. It also does not include a sustainable premium in the price of power sold. Wind energy installations are either built by private energy utilities or else are built for captive use. There has been no such tariff-based tendering mechanism in place, like there has been in China. This throws a stumbling block in the way of bigger-scale wind plant construction on a nationwide scale.
Regional Electricity Commissioners are suffering financial losses as a result of a famous state government initiative. As a result, they need not step forward to build new power stations. Regional Electricity Boards do not export the power generated by Independent Power Stations. As a result, despite their passion in the profession, interested individuals must leave. Local Electricity Board are not doing enough because they do not have enough money at times, according to reports.
In terms of fabrication, management, and equipment, there has been no industrial support. As a result, whereas Western nations are constructing 4-5 MegaWatts plants, India is only capable of constructing 1-2 MegaWatts plants. Leading to a shortage of a consistent national sustainable energy policy, India’s vast wind energy potential has just been partially utilised. Certain regions, such as the north-eastern area, are not considered when calculating wind potential.
Although the Sustainable Portfolio Standards as well as fed-in-tariffs could potentially coexist, this must be done carefully to prevent inefficiencies. The investment cost for installation has risen, while the potential of the system has remained unchanged. Just 90 of the 642 observation stations are now operational. 250 power stations have already been shut down. India seems unconcerned about the need for Research & development activities throughout the wind energy sector. Whereas Denmark founded Riso during 1958, India did not see the need for such a facility until 2005, when CWET was built.
The newly-established National Institution of Transforming India or NITI Aayog, which superseded India’s 65-years-old Review Committee, is in charge of organising SDGs across the country. States are even also doing the same mapping of state-sponsored programmes which are being executed to meet the SDGs, encompassing visioning, organizing, budgeting, and building implementation as well as monitoring systems. According to a recent study, India’s ranking has dropped two positions from previous year to score 117 on the 17 (SDGs) or Sustainable Development Goal.
The following are the 4 significant gaps in India’s pursuit of Sustainable Development:
Defining the Essential Indicators: Developing appropriate metrics to effectively measure the achievement of SDGs is among India’s biggest issues. To effectively execute the SDGs, fundamental definitions for sectors like safe and clear drinking water, poverty, hunger and education must be changed.
Financing Sustainable Development Goals: Despite the country’s best efforts as well as making hunger alleviation a topmost concern since the 4th Five-year Plan,the country has the greatest number of citizens living under the poverty category (Dubash et al., 2018). At the present investment level, there has been a massive funding shortfall which hinders the attaining sustainable development progress.
Monitoring and Implementation Process Ownership: Although the NITI Aayog has been expected to act as a crucial role in taking the implementation process ownership, the Aayog have demonstrated their concerns moment as well as again regarding the limited manpower which they need to control like a Herculean activity.
Measuring the Development: India government has agreed to the fact of data’s non-availability, particularly from the areas of sub-national. Administrative data’s incomplete coverage has been yet another determinant which has hampered the developments measurements as well as the (MDGs) or Millennium Development Goals which were the Sustainable Developments precursor.
2.3.3 Determine the future development trend of sustainable energy in India by generating the recommendations
Some particular examples can be brought into this report which includes:
- Rooftop Solar energy: A more holistic approach can be drawn in demand accumulation. A specific model consolidated into the GoI’s Phase II interconnecting RTS scheme. It permits DISCOMs to get transaction allowance for facilitating the installation process on a monthly basis (Gunnarsdóttir et al., 2020). It is required for running different Operational activities & Maintenance of process (O&M). Collection of bills and particulars includes allowing relevant data and elimination of cross-selling and
- Distributed Storage involved in the process: Distribution and storage of energy involves utilization of storage and implementation of policy. Integration is done with respect to Phase II RTS scheme. Instead of promotional activities, a capital-based model can fetch effective results in the long run. The government officials aid in creating a favorable environment for models for serving operational activities. The involvement of DISCOMs can help a lot in this respect.
- Smart energy Management within the workplace: An Effective initiative on performing incentives can bring suitable results forInternet of Things (IoT). It is mainly based on efficiency of energy , which can be correlated to age-old circuits of home appliances. Thus it helps in accelerating consumption of energy and optimization of particulars. This management is effectively followed in households and small scale entities.It helps in lowering the value of energy bills and strengthening overall flexibility. For example, DISCOMs help in effective movement towards Daily billing in relation to the demand section of
- Electric Vehicle and Charging Infrastructure within concern: EV-charging infrastructure in the country of india should be nursed as a public commodity. Policy aid in supporting a decentralized attitude with respect to DISCOMs in implementation within the agency. A franchise-based model will also be effectively applied. Allowing establishments in commercial sectors aid in producing solar power from RTS. It essentially helps in setting up charging points in retail outlets.
- Establishment of Solar Agricultural Pumps: The GoI’s KUSUM scheme in current times has a centralized approach. It allows stating DISCOMs to have a partnership with private indivialsenaged in instalation.It is executed on a local level. It is considered that DISCOMs can aid in easing commercial relationships (Dubash et al., 2018). The solar pump installers and local farmers are effectively engaged in this management process. The DISCOM through effective installation process can pool the extra power and resources.Generation of energy from solar pumps aid in injection and paying purchase costs for supplying resources. The due net charges of service fees are settled down owing to co-operatives.
- Solar Cold Storage within concern: The GoI currently enables a 30% subsidy on selected cold storage areas of installation. It typically involves livelihood subsidy schemes on rural platforms. It is to be taken into consideration that the importance of storage in the agricultural part of the region is done through the supply chain. It helps in creating a separate base on solar cold storage to lower capital expenses.
- Productive Usage of Appliances: The imperative approach shifts the criteria of providing grants from sponsoring purchases to aiding project development. It is basically done to support entrepreneurs in development of particulars and products. Equipment sponsorship includes limitations and restrictions in granting usage of assets .Project development further supports permitting entrepreneurs to advance in technical examination and reduction of costs. The expenses are associated with raising of capital as well as developing commercial business models. Reduction in the cost of items is followed in the process.
Proposed Guidelines and rules for Policy Makers
A wide range of promotional activity of renewable energy by agencies can aid development in the corporate and public sector. Educational institutions are also benefited from the same. Establishing a body on a national platform aids in enhancing awareness of renewable energy at root level. Financial guidance and subsidizing aid in research development for effective utilization of renewable energy.The aims and goals relating to generation of power aid in obtaining modern and advanced sources.Installation of solar and biomass power systems help in effective generation of energy.If Government officials motivate and encourage their employees, they can bring fruitful results.Limitation on usage of large battery systems and storage of energy can aid in improving advancement.Compulsion creation helps in installation of solar water systems in heating process. It proves to be of great help to urban residents and commercial entity.Mandatory provision are being made to renewable energy systems for commercial purpose and industrial upgradation It is necessary to seek attention on incentives policy and subsidies schemes for installation of resources.Effective operational activities of renewable energy ensures application of equipment in the long run.Elimination of age old duties and imposition of taxes on import of small-scale equipment is followed in this respect.It supports generating power and energy.Cultivation of crops boosting energy on marginal land can also be seen (Dubash et al., 2018).Usage of biofuels is noticed as well.Soft loans in preparation of renewable energy are followed in various enterprises.
Additions are made to incentives for different buyers of renewable energy. The appliances and tools in rural areas are effectively utilized in this regard.
Guidelines and rules for Research Professionals
- It is very essential to develop comprehensive plans on educational platforms and create awareness for renewable energy.
- Generation of renewable energy resources bring forth Development of cost friendly solar cells. Thus high-efficiency and durability can be achieved
- It is very important to develop wind turbines, aligning from 300 W – 10 kW. It helps in generation of energy at low
- The small-scale activities are effectively to be developed. It ensures low cost to make usage of adequate biomass energy resources in rural areas.
Government initiatives taken up for efficiency:
It is seen that under the Union Budget in the year 2021-22, the government has effectively delivered a capital value of Rs. 1,000 crore to Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) . It has also provided a sum of Rs. 1,500 crore to the Development Agency of Indian Renewable Energy.
For the purpose of domestic production at regular intervals, customs duty is charged on inverters which has been enhanced from 5% to 20%. Meanwhile, the percentage of solar lanterns has increased from 5% to 15%. The production related to the domestic approach has to be taken into account. In the month of November 2020, Ladakh received the highest project in prepping up the central government officials. ‘Make in India’ initiative lined up at Indian Air Force Station of Ladakh comprises a certain magnitude and measurements. In the month of November 2020, the government officials made a production-linked incentive (PLI) policy. It comprises a value of Rs. 4,500 crore. It will bring high-efficiency for generation of resources. Modules of solar PV aid in the manufacturing process for a period of five years.
2.4 Theoretical Underpinning
Various sustainability frameworks have been successful in forming the foundation as well as underlying characteristics for sustainable energy ideas. Such hypotheses have been discovered to be extremely important and can be used to help a nation’s economic, sociological, and environmental strata grow. Because the fundamental columns of the frameworks have 3 different components which ought to be concentrated on, they are commonly referred to as 3 legged models (Su et al., 2020). Sustainable development is generally defined as a process in which current requirements are met while randomly working toward the achievement of future objectives and demands. The materials accessible to everyone are mostly non-renewable, as they will be depleted throughout the future as a result of the current excessive use. As a result, sustainable development has become a process that will seek to promote the use of sustainable energy sources such as air, solar, as well as hydroelectricity energy for the welfare of the community and the preservation of an environmentally friendly atmosphere. For the purpose of explaining the sustainable growth theory, there have been primarily two frameworks which can be used:
3-Overlapping Circles Frameworks – In this paradigm, the sustainable segment is defined as the correlation of three separate parameters like economic, social, as well as environmental conditions. These diverse approaches are used to put energy sustainability alongside development into effect. The responsible features under which the notion of renewable power is based must be mentioned.
Nonrenewable energy sources can be found in the environment, but they are restricted in addition to quality as well as quantity. As a consequence, the heavy use of such metals may lead to shortage and depletion in the coming years. Human civilisation must rely on and exploit sustainable energy sources towards their utmost potential. As a consequence, scarce resources would be conserved, and subsequent generations would be able to benefit from them.
After a decade of rapid development, low, middle, and high-income countries are finalising their sustainable energy policies. It was previously stated that nearly 37% of the countries covered by the Regulatory Indicators for Sustainable Energy, or RISE, have set national renewable energy targets for 2010. In contrast, according to Gunnarsdóttir et al., a full legal framework for sustainable energy sources has been built or launched in 99 percent of countries around the world as of 2019 (Gunnarsdóttir et al., 2020). One-third of all countries improved their sustainable energy policy frameworks, putting them in the green zone of the report, while 44% stayed in the yellow zone, indicating that there is still potential for development. Apart from that, the overall sustainable energy gap between low- and high-income nations was reduced in 2017–2019. To put it another way, practically every country has a sustainable energy policy for energy, but only one-third of the parties have a tight or unambiguous development goal/plan.
The primary goal of sustainable energy development is to use energy resources for human use in a way that promotes long-term development. Sustainable energy development, on the other hand, is described by the WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development) as development that meets current needs without jeopardising future generations’ ability to satisfy their own. It does, however, have three primary points of view: environmental, economic, and social. Each perspective is associated with a system (and domain) that has a distinct driving force and goal (Su et al., 2020). As a result, renewable energy has emerged as a valuable resource that interacts with these environmental, economic, and social elements in order to achieve long-term growth. On the other hand, policymakers are confronted with a variety of obstacles in enacting policies that can improve a country’s performance based on those characteristics, particularly because there is no powerful form of sustainable energy in all three dimensions.
Agencies can promote development in the business and governmental sectors by promoting renewable energy in a variety of ways. Educational institutions gain from this as well. Creating a national platform can help raise awareness of renewable energy at the grassroots level. Financial assistance and subsidising aid in research and development for effective renewable energy consumption. The objectives and goals for electricity generating aid in the acquisition of modern and improved sources. Solar and biomass power systems can aid in the efficient generation of energy. One-third of all countries improved their sustainable energy policy frameworks, putting them in the green zone of the report, while 44% stayed in the yellow zone, indicating that there is still potential for development. Apart from that, the overall sustainable energy gap between low- and high-income nations was reduced in 2017–2019. To put it another way, practically every country has a sustainable energy policy for energy, but only one-third of the parties have a tight or unambiguous development goal/plan.
2.5 Literature Gap
This literature emphasizes Indian policy and compares it to similar policies from around the world, allowing for the identification of deficiencies in Indian policy. However, a few of the relevant segments have really been left out of the aforesaid literature and, in general, need to be educated on. Geothermal as well as nuclear power are two additional non-conventional power sources that can be employed as a source of renewable energy throughout India. Such resources could also be used in power generation, and they can also have a bigger influence on the preservation of nonrenewable power sources. However, these aspects have not been highlighted in this research.
From the above analysis it can be stated that energy is considered as being the most crucial building component in human evolution, as well as a crucial ingredient influencing any nation’s long-term development. Conventional sources cast a threatening shadow over the current as well as future global security, environmental aspect, health, alongside society as a whole. India is the world’s third largest power consumer and third biggest sustainable energy generator, having renewable energy accounting for 38 percent (136 Gigawatts from out 373 Gigawatts) of overall installed power capacity throughout 2020. A more holistic approach can be drawn in demand accumulation. A specific model consolidated into the GoI’s Phase II interconnecting RTS scheme. It permits DISCOMs to get transaction allowance for facilitating the installation process on a monthly basis. By 2030, India hopes to have developed renewable energy production of around 450 gigawatts (GW), with solar accounting for roughly 280 Gigawatts (almost 60 percent). India possessed 96.96 Gigawatts of sustainable energy capacity as of the year 2021, July accounting for 25.2 percent of total built in power capacity, presenting a significant opportunity regarding the construction of sustainable data centres.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology
In a dissertation, the research methodology chapter contains the methods and tools which help to collect, classify, process the collected data and the interpretation of the collected information related to the topic of the research work. The chapter helps the reader to critically assess the entire validity and reliability of the research done by the researcher. The research methodology chapter includes many stages like philosophy, approach, design, data collection, data analysis, sampling size and techniques, ethical consideration and identifying limitations of the research work along with proper implementation. In this particular study, which is based on the development and current situation of sustainable energy in India, the researcher mainly used the positivism research philosophy, deductive research approach and descriptive research design to perform the research work . To conduct the research work, the researcher mainly follows the secondary data collection method and qualitative type of data analysis method (Dźwigoł, 2018). Therefore, the researcher actually did thematic analysis to complete the research work in an accurate manner. Not only that, information gathered from the different blogs, journals, articles, magazines, books and newspapers are also used in the study to make it more critical.
3.2 Research Outline
Before starting the main study, the idea about each and every respective step of the research work is identified and focused in the research outline chapter. The chapter mainly allows the researcher to range and organise all the selected methods in an accurate pattern that can be easily useful for collecting information about the present situation and development of sustainable energy in India. Therefore, it can be said that the research outline actually reflects the map of the methodology of the research work by organising each level or section step by step. Hence, it helps the learner to get an idea about the idea and concept of research work (Tabuena, 2020). A research onion is a noticeable extension for the particular research method.
Figure 1: Research Outline
(Source: Abutabenjeh and Jaradat, 2018)
The research onion represents each and every step like philosophy, approach, design or data collection and analysis in its layers. The researcher should proceed from the outside of the model and peel each and every layer respectively until the researcher reaches the core, that is data analysis. The ethics of the research should also be represented to the end of the methodology section at the end of research onion (Melnikovas, 2018).
3.3 Research Philosophy
Figure 2: Research Philosophy
(Source: created by the learner)
The research philosophy can be described as a trust or belief for the phenomenon that will be analysed, obtained and utilised in the dissertation in an appropriate way. It can be said that the philosophy corresponds to the advancement of knowledge and the essence within the gained knowledge (Abu-Alhaija,2019). The research philosophy can be divided into three parts named as – positivism research philosophy, Interpretivism research philosophy and realism research philosophy. In positivism type of philosophy, the researcher has to gather truthful information regarding the topic of the research work. Positivism philosophy uses some measurements to collect information. It is actually based on factual research data that are collected in a value-free way, allowing for the generation of objective results and the development of particular scientific laws.
Throughout the positivism philosophy, the function of the researcher is confined in an analytical way for information collection and analysis. The researcher keeps himself an impartial researcher and dissociates himself from applying his personal beliefs in the research work. The interpretivism philosophy gives a scope to researchers to play a vital role in analysing the phenomenon. Interpretevism give stress on the subjective Interpretation behind the sociological phenomenon done by the researcher. It actually relies or centred on the viewpoint of the researcher regarding the research topic. In interpretivism, the truth is inseparable from the individual who has experienced it. The third type of research philosophy that is Realism, is focused on both the ideas of positivism and interpretivism philosophy. It describes the viewpoint of the researcher based on the events which can be easily recognised as the nature of an individual’s thoughts (Manocha, 2020). Realism philosophy mainly focuses on theories that can be helpful for understanding the ambiguous nature of humans.
In order to continue the particular research work, the researcher decided to apply positivism philosophy to collect and analyse the information regarding the sustainable energy development and current situation of it in India. Positivism is used for the collection of truthful information for the research work in a value-free way that can also be allowed for the results in order to get appropriate adjectives that can be developed by the use of laws. It also employs the proper function of positivism philosophy that can confine the research work in an analytical method to collect and analyse the gathered information. It also allows the researcher to get accurate information and knowledge related to the chosen topic of the research. The information that are collected by using the positivism philosophy is done by the utilisation of analytical methodology for doing a detailed performance study. Actually the main motive of the positivism philosophy is to formulate the universal and abstract laws on the operative dynamics of the social universe (Siponen and Tsohou ,2018). All knowledge that is gathered related to the particular research topic is based on the positive data of experience in positivism.
3.4 Research Approach
Figure 3: Research Approach
(Source: created by the learner)
It is very important for a research work to contain a proper research approach to progress the research work successfully. The research approach actually helps the researcher in appropriate identification of methods and plan in a detailed way. This section also includes some interpretation along with the analysis for the collection of data purposes. The research approach helps to select various tools which are considered as appropriate for the research work as per the availability of it and are needed to be taken into consideration to develop and identify the research problems. The research approach includes many steps as per the procedures that consist of accurate interpretation analysis and the methods of collecting data. The incorporation of those important factors are considered very much important to complete the entire research in a very progressive way (Tuffour,2017). There are mainly two type of research approaches that are applied as per the project responses to conduct the research work are – inductive research approach and deductive research approach.
The inductive type of approach consists of the building of new models and theories on the basis of the research topic. The inductive approach is also used when the researcher gets a detailed reading over the secondary concepts like themes and models that are being widely used for qualitative data analysis. The theories and models are not claimed in the previous stages, hence those theories are basically new that are made by the researcher himself. On the other hand, the deductive type of approach deals with the important and widely used theories that makes the research work more realistic as well as effective by nature. Both the two kinds of approaches are implemented by the researcher according to the nature of the research work (Woiceshyn and Daellenbach, 2018). There are some positive factors that exist for the completion of the research work in a better way. It also contains the collaboration with the variant participants for the verification and the test of the theories and explanations to identify the variable study.
In order to conduct the research work that is related to the current situation of usage and development of sustainable energy in India successfully, The researcher selected the deductive approach to apply in the research work. The topic needs a logical conclusion because it is based on logical reasoning. Due to this, the researcher selects a deductive approach to conduct the research to put an effective stress on the better completion of the research work. It also includes some qualitative analysis for the particular methods that have testing of their hypothesis as well as dealing with different methods that consider the correlating factors. It can be said as a concept that provides a difference between an over variable and the original factors for the appropriate deduction of the hypothesis. However, it also helps in providing and deals with the relevant methods along with the hypothesis to reach its logical conclusion (Machila et al., 2018).The deductive type of approach is focused on the testing hypothesis. It offers a possibility to explain the causal relationship between the variable and concepts. It is also considered as less time consuming to conduct.
3.5 Research Design
Figure 4: Research Design
(Source: created by the learner)
The next step after the research approach is applying research design in the research work and it helps in the selection process as well as the appropriate designing for conducting the research work. It is considered as an important determinant that is connected to the particular study.The research design plays a very important role by helping the researcher to conduct the data collection procedure by observing it properly. The research design gives a better framework on the research questions that help to design the particular research for getting the appropriate category of designing of research (Geoffrey,2019). Actually it helps to focus on the appropriate theory of framework on the basis of the research question which can be used for designing the research subject.
The research design can be classified into three sections named as – descriptive research design, exploratory research design and explanatory research design.any of the three types can be applied by the researcher to use appropriate designs for collecting accurate information that are considered useful for the research work. Not only that, it also help researchers to make right decisions regarding the evidence of various approaches by using the factors. The explanatory type of research design is followed in that case when the topic is not well-researched before. The exploratory research design used for the investigation of the issue which is not clearly defined. The descriptive type of research design is considered as an appropriate choice when the aim of the research is to identify frequency, characteristics, trends and categories within a research topic (Rahi, 2017).
For conducting the research work which is based on the current situation and development of sustainable energy and its sources in India, the researcher chooses the descriptive type of research design for conducting the study. Basically the descriptive design is related to the data collection process in a very natural way that helps the researcher to conduct the study by using the remaining components. The research design mainly follows the research approach which helps the researcher to select the proper method of research design. The descriptive research design helps to conduct the study in a constant way to complete the work by using the appropriate models and framework regarding the development of sustainable energy in India. The descriptive design is related to the method of data collection in a common way and helpful to complete the remaining components required in research work (Sileyew, 2019). It is considered very helpful to conduct research on non-quantified topics or issues. In descriptive research, there is scope for implementing both the quantitative and qualitative data collection.
3.6 Data Collection
The next step for the progress of the research work is collection of the data related to the research topic. This particular procedure helps to collect all the information from the topic relevant reliable sources in order to find the responses that are based on the research problems, hypothesis and the evaluation of the research outcome. The data collection method can be classified into two parts – primary data collection method and secondary data collection method. The primary type is very particular to the research topic and information is gathered by the researcher by qualitative and quantitative processes . The qualitative type of collection includes the interview process and quantitative collection is done by surveying a group of respondents. The secondary type of data collection method includes collection of secondary data relevant to the topic (Maeder et al., 2018). The source of the collecting secondary data are – journals, books, articles, newspaper, blogs and others.
For the progress of particular research work that is based on the current condition of sustainable energy in India and its further development, the secondary data collection method is used by the researcher. It uses the existing data that are collected and described in the journals,blogs, books and newspapers to critically understand about the usage of sustainable energy resources by the organisations in India and how much the government promotes the uses of the sustainable energy resources for the industries within the country. The advantage of using the secondary data collection method is using tested data which is already analysed and filterised. It is considered as less time consuming because it does not require any survey or interview process that can take a long time (Johnston,2017). The researcher collects the information by identifying the exact useful data that are relevant to the topic and after the collection the researcher combines and compares it for the next step, analysis. It is less expensive and less risky to do compared to the primary methods.
3.7 Data Analysis
The process of data analysis ultimately started after the proper collection of data. It conceptualises the accurate interpretation and evaluation of the gathered information that helps to give outcome from the research work. There are basically two types of data analysis processes when primary collection is done, that are qualitative and quantitative data analysis. In the case of a secondary data collection method , a secondary thematic analysis is done to obtain valuable outcomes by critical evaluation of collected secondary data that includes journals, articles, newspapers,books and other resources (Filzmoser et al., 2018). However, in the particular research work, the researcher collected data by the secondary collection method, hence the researcher has to analyse the collected data in thematic analysis method.
The thematic analysis is done by the researcher to evaluate the data related to the development and current situation of sustainable energy in India. In order to do the secondary thematic analysis, different collected secondary data are evaluated and assessed critically in an appropriate manner. The analysis is done by creating different themes according to which the entire analysis went on in order to give a satisfactory research outcome. It is considered as a very flexible approach that enables the researcher to generate new concepts and insight about the acceptance of sustainable energy resources among the people of India, the movements of government to promote the use of sustainable energy and how industries of the country developed their use of sustainable energy resources within their organisation. It is considered very helpful for those who are new in the research field for understanding the impact and current situation of the research topic without directly undergoing the survey and interview process. It is also helpful for the researcher in gathering knowledge and various viewpoints regarding the research topic.
3.8 Sampling Size and techniques
The sampling size and techniques is a kind of statistical term that is applied for measuring the interest to complete the entire research work. It enables the researchers to get more information about the topic of the research by measuring and collecting. The sampling size can give some benefits after applying it, such as – cost effectiveness, requires very less time and ultimately gives more accuracy over the method of collecting the topic relevant data and provides a proper study over the entire process. The basic motive behind the implementation of sampling size in the research work is to generalise the results from the sampling units. The sampling size is classified into two types – Probability sample and the Non probability samples. Probability samples are actually the random sampling method regarding the selected topic and allows different statistical applications and theories to generalise over the topic by the help of test hypotheses. In non probability sampling size , the researcher selects samples which are based on the subjective judgement done by the researcher himself rather than the random selection. In the case of the outcomes that are the results of the secondary thematic analysis, the sampling size can be used for getting the better result. The sampling size and techniques are useful for the better evaluation of the collected secondary data related to various aspects of sustainable energy development and its current situation in India.
3.9 Ethical Consideration
Research ethics basically are essential for various reasons. Firstly, they promote research aims, like expanding knowledge. Secondly, they assist the values needed for collaborative study, like mutual respect as well as fairness. .Thirdly, they support essential social values along with moral values, like the principle of performing no hazards to others. It is vital to observe the ethical considerations, which include many rules as well as regulations, when doing research. I obeyed all of the rules, laws, and principles for gathering information from various sources while conducting this research. Apart from that, to analyse data and accomplish my assigned task, I followed UoC’s ethical requirements. I also kept track of all legal as well as political considerations when gathering data from other academics’ research for use in my study. I also employ the Data Protection Act of 2018 to secure personal data I gathered for my research, which is unrelated to environmental concerns. I attempted to keep all required elements such as reliability, authenticity, integrity, accessibility, secrecy, privacy, as well as security in order to protect all personal information from any type of criminal activity.
Figure 3.10: Timeline of the research
(source: as per the learner)
To pursue this particular study project, the researcher decided to use positivist philosophy to gather and analyse data on sustainable energy development and its current state in India. The researcher picks the descriptive style of research strategy for conducting the study, which is based on the existing condition and development of sustainable energy and its sources in India. The researcher uses a secondary form of data gathering approach for the progress of a specific study project that is based on the current state of sustainable energy in India and its future development. To carry on with the investigation, the researcher decided to use positivist philosophy to collect and analyse data on sustainable energy development and its current state in India. The researcher picks the descriptive style of research strategy for conducting the study since it is based on the existing status and development of sustainable energy and its sources in India. The researcher uses the secondary type of data gathering approach for the progress of a specific study project that is based on the current state of sustainable energy in India and its future development.
Chapter 4: Data Findings and analysis
The data analysis chapter helps the researcher to collect further information related to the present condition of sustainable energy and its development in India. Thematic analysis is done here under five themes related to the topic of the research work. It consists of much secondary information related to the research topic that is collected and gathered by the researcher.
4.2 Thematic Analysis
4.2.1 India’s current status of sustainable energy is strong enough
In recent years, India has made significant progress while providing electricity to hundreds of millions of people and making impressive strides in the use of sustainable energy sources, especially solar energy. However, the success of the Indian government’s energy policy so far has given the country confidence in its ability to address the challenges in terms of energy sustainability and security. Based on a report, it was found that the rapid growth of solar energy, coupled with sound policies, is transforming India’s energy sector (Rathore et al., 2019). This has been providing reliable, clean and affordable energy to an increasing number of homes and businesses. In other words, it can be determined that India’s renewable and/or sustainable energy sector is the fourth most attractive endurable energy market across the world. Additionally, in the year 2019, India ranked fifth in wind power, fifth in solar power and fourth in installed renewable energy capacity (Gielen et al., 2019). Apart from that, it can be demonstrated that the country’s total electricity production (including production from grid-connected renewable sources) is growing exponentially. In the period from 2014-2015 to 2015-2016, the country reached BU 1110.458 and BU 1173.603, respectively. The same was the case with 2015-2016, 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 with BU 1241.689, BU 1306.614 and 1306.614 accordingly (Majid, 2020).
Figure: 4.1.1: Growth of energy production (Renewable and Conventional)
(Source: energsustainsoc.biomedcentral.com, 2021)
The above figure shows that renewable energy generation (annual) is growing faster than conventional energy generation. The increase was 6.47% in the fiscal year 2015-2016 and 24.88% in the year 2017-2018. It should be noted that energy production from conventional sources reached 811.143 Billion Units and from renewable sources, it was BU 9.860 in 2010, in contrast to 1206.306 and 88.945 Billion Units in the year 2017 (energsustainsoc.biomedcentral.com, 2021). On the other hand, it has been pointed out that the cost of generating energy with sustainable technologies is bigger than conventional production technologies, but it is likely to decrease with amplifying experience with the techniques used. At the same time, as of 2019, (December) 15,100 MW (MegaWatts) have been issued to wind energy projects, of which projects with an output of 12,162.50. Currently, by July 2021, India has 96.96 GW of sustainable energy capacity and 25.2% of the total installed capacity, which is a huge opportunity to grow green data centres.
India does not have large DISCOMS to generate power. However, there are arrangements for mini-DISCOMS that can help in powering small towns and cities. In consequence, the nation is targeting approximately 450 GW (GigaWatts) of installed renewable and/or sustainable energy capacity within 2030 along with 280 GW (over 60%) from solar energy (Irfan et al., 2020).
Therefore, it was known that installed capacity to generate energy from renewable sources has increased rapidly in recent years and published a CAGR of 15.51% between the financial Year 2016 to 2021. If the country goes down this path, it will have to address significant issues of the industrial sector by efforts such as the wider process of electrification, higher material and energy efficiency with the application of technologies such as carbon capture, and a transformation to more gradual low-carbon fuels. All these aspects are also important tools for the transport sector, along with important steps in building a more sustainable and/or endurable infrastructure and moving more goods onto India’s future electrified railways (Nouni et al., 2021). This transformation – on a scale never before achieved by any country in history – requires enormous innovation advances, strong partnerships and huge capital. At the same time, the additional clean energy technology funding needed to put India on a more sustainable path over the upcoming 20 years, which is $1.4 trillion, or 70%, more than the scenario under the current policy-based framework (Kumar et al., 2019). However, the benefits are enormous while saving the number of import bills. Eventually, based on the research it can be mentioned that Government policies for accelerating India’s clean energy transition could lay the groundwork for enduring prosperity and huge energy security.
4.2.2 The Indian sustainable energy sector is the world’s most appealing sustainable energy market
Besides the developed countries, the sustainable energy usage in India is sufficient enough and is under further progress. The usage of renewable energy is is promoted and enhanced by the government of India and help to make the usage of sustainable energy market more appealing in the global sustainable energy market. In the last five years, sustainable energy has developed more in this country. The government set their intention in 2015, for the transition to a lower-emission electricity system, by announcing a target of 175 GW from renewable sources by 2022. In recent times, 83 GW of renewable capacity has been installed in the country and 31 GW is under development along with 35 GW , which is out for tender. The above data clearly shows that it makes India one of the five countries in the top five positions of renewable-energy producers in the international market. Many domestic and foreign investors are investing in the sustainable energy market of India because of its appealing growth. Almost $7 billion of foreign investments are seen from 2018 to April,2020 in this particular field. Sovereign wealth funds as well as bilateral and multilateral agencies made a sufficient investment in Indian solar and wind energy generation companies and green energy related firms. Moreover, it also has been found that the coal can still be used for ½ of energy generation in India.
The government and industries of India also implying many strategies by exploring various fields of investment in the sustainable energy sector to boost the interest of both international and national investors. The country is developing rapidly in the economical field and the urbanisation of peoples along with growth in income can be seen at this time. Not only that, a steady growth in the population of the country is also a noticeable factor for the increase of consumer demand in electricity. The primary energy sources are not capable of fulfilling the increasing demand for electricity, therefore, usage of renewable energy sources becomes very important in this country. A sufficient use of sustainable energy is helpful for satisfying the customer without creating much carbon-emission in nature or decreasing the environment’s harm. The government also takes many steps for increasing the area of scope for investment for the foreign investor organisation. The government had announced an intensive target of using 450 GW green energy capacity by 2030, that commitment can attract the foreign investors to invest in the sustainable energy sector of the country. The country also improved its ranking position in the World’s Bank Ease of Doing Business and the country recently attained the 3rd rank in the EY RE Country Attractiveness Index. For the RE project, India allows 100% of foreign investments that helps in facilitation of easy transfer of technology and capital.
The government also declared several welcome measures such as tax breaks for the establishment of mega-manufacturing plants for lithium storage batteries, vehicles that are driven by electrical support, solar cells and charging infrastructure. The renewable energy market of India is increasing in size and well-diversified day by day, in terms of its project implementation location helped lower investor’s risk perception. It is also a good sign for the investors because the RE industry of the country improved more by its characteristics and facilities within it like – enlargement of its size, lower risks, predictable yields and medium to satisfactory return that can attract the foreign institutional investors to invest. Like the US, China or other highly developed countries, The RE industry of India also offers higher risk adjusted excess returns than markets of comparable size. It can be said the RE sector gives a great scope and opportunities for the foreign institutional investors, especially when faced with dipping returns in their national market. It is considered as a great field that can rise in profit and both investors and industries have the scope of reaching satisfactory profit margin.
The scopes and the factors that are identified above , have designed a way for several international funds who have already started dealing with the sector or are in advanced stages of discussion before investing. There are many willing investors such as – Abu Dhabi investment authority, Brookfield, Singapore based GIC holdings, CPPIB and CPDQ from Canada, SoftBank, Holland based Sembcorp and APG , Japanese company ORIX and others. The private equity arms of JP Morgan, Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs have also entered in the particular sector, gained satisfactory return and kept continued faith in it. Those above mentioned scopes and factors make India as a home for one of the largest renewable energy expansions. The government is also giving many facilities and support to reach a satisfactory profit from using renewable energy and it’s further growth.
4.2.3 When comparing Indian policy to the policies of other countries around the world, there are many similarities and contrasts
the emission of carbon or any harmful product for the environment. There are many similarities as well as dissimilarities within the policies of those countries regarding the usage of sustainable or green energies with the policies or practices within India related to the implementation and use of the green energy. The countries like Germany, UK, Sweden, Spain and Italy are considered the topmost countries in using a sufficient amount of solar energy. Germany is trying to reduce conventional energy use (Kahla, 2017). The government is doing a massive amount of investment in the development of renewable energy usage and measures are taking some policies for managing the problem related to climate change. India also take some measures for the implementation of renewable energy and the government sets a goal to spread the usage of sustainable energy in every part of the country. However, Germany is more financially stable than India and investments are easier and accessible because of the improved economy. The UK is also putting stress on renewable energy usage such as wind energy resources and provides 40% of the country’s energy sources (Walsh et al., 2017). In India, wind is also used as the renewable energy source, but not in a sufficient amount. The lack of tendency to use renewable sources can be seen among the Indian people and conventional energy is still used in excess in the country, which leads to heavy amounts of carbon emission in nature. Despite some similarities within the policies or practices related to green energy implementation and usage in India and other countries which are developed enough in the use of sustainable energy, it is very hard to imply in India in each and every part of the country. The challenges regarding intermittency or variability caused by the climate, the higher cost of initial implementation and the variation in location specific potential that are concentrated in various areas are the biggest issues in the country.
One of the general calculations that are done by the power system operators is to estimate the amount of renewable power that can be handled by the grid. Typical figures from elsewhere are in the range of 20-30 percent, with more requiring significant investments in transmission or peaker plants. In that case, India is considered different from other developed countries because of its very weak and less-stable grid and instead of having a reasonable reserve margin , there is a shortfall recognised in the grid around 5 percent officially. This is very low compared to the grid of western developed countries, where the reasonable reserve margin of the grid is generally 15 to 20 percent. The grid is kept afloat because of the cutouts of supply or load shedding and it can impact negatively on the options of solar system such as rooftop solar, though there is a backup option to manage the load-shedding by using the grid-tie inverter (Rathore et al., 2019). However, in the case of massive down in grid, the economics of rooftop solar takes a massive hit because of the non supply of power. It is a noticeable contrast in the usage of sustainable energy in India and in the other developed countries. Government should improve their policies and develop their electricity supply system more.
There are some other technical reasons that weaken the grid of India. The reasons include lack of ancillary services, where the system is designed in a way that can keep the grid stable and not only limited to pricing kilowatt-hours. There is another type of lack existing related to time-of-day pricing for bulk procurement of power.
4.2.4 Indian policy still has a lot of gaps in it and its need to be improved
The growth of using sustainable energy resources is growing rapidly in India and the growth is satisfactory enough. However, there are many gaps in the Indian policy of implementing sustainable energy in various operations that should be imThere are many challenges in implementation of sustainable energy to do various operations in India. A noticeable challenge is related to the high initial cost of RE implementation. The coal based plants require less amount of implementation cost than the solar power plant implementation. A wind based plant, which has the capacity of utilisation of 25%, required 6 crores of implementation cost per MW. Similarly a solar based plant,which has the utilisation capacity of 15% requires almost 18 crore implementation cost. Therefore, there is a need for research and technological advancements to improve policies for reducing or balancing the higher implementation cost in RE fields. To accelerate the growth of sustainable energy in India, a comprehensive policy framework is necessary.
For improving the policies related to the implementation and usage of RE in India, proper system planning and integration is needed, which is considered as another important aspect of the topic (Jewitt and Raman, 2017). The RE projects are essentially based on the availability, therefore, the companies should imply a RE project on the basis of the type of the available resources and capacity by ensuring those factors. There is another challenge of renewable energy implementation, that is it necessarily depends on the climate and the weather.( Majid, 2020). The number of sunny days, rainy days, wind condition or tide level of a particular area decides which type of renewable energy plant should be established there. In India, weather can vary from place to place and changes in climate can be seen. Not only that, topography also varies from place to place in the country, consisting of plain lands, deserts, hilly regions and other types of topographical lands. Therefore , various kinds of renewable energy sources are present in the country and government or non-governmental organisations have to implement any of the one type of RE plants (Rathore et al., 2018). The availability of biomass is also an important determinant of RE implementation. However, in the case of conventional plants, the plant availability is not predictable.
Another challenge in implementation and usage of renewable energy sources is social awareness. A lack of awareness of using renewable energy sources can be seen in this country, not only the rural areas but also the urban people who do not use renewable energy much. However, the government of India gives a sufficient subsidiary for implementation of solar water heaters and lighting systems, but people use it in very less amounts (Elavarasan et al., 2020). The government and other companies can arrange an awareness program for increasing the use of solar power among the general people.
Training of labour or training of manpower is another thing of concern that has to be improved. Recently, the power sector of India is facing some problems regarding the shortage of trained manpower. The employees are lacking skills in the renewable energy sector that leads ultimately to less productivity. Therefore, taking policies and procedures related to the training of existing less skilled manpower and the training of new professionals is necessary for the fast productivity and increasing efficiency of each and every individual (Reddy et al., 2018). This can be helpful for the government of the country to achieve the goal of “power to all” in future.
In the case of implementing renewable energy, there have been various instances where developers have faced operational and sustainability issues due to the tug-of-war between the Central and the State governments. This functions as a deterrent to the spirit of cooperative and collaborative federalism and ultimately leads to roadblocks in gaining the objective set out by India before the UNFCCC. The problem regarding the land acquisition for implementing renewable energy plants is also arising for the renewable energy developers in India. Some issues that can arise such as – poorly maintained land, scarcity of an accurate land utilisation policy, limits of land ceiling, the task of obtaining permission for establishing the sustainable energy plants from the local bodies that can act as obstacles to implement it successfully (Chaurasiya et al., 2019).
As discussed before, the availability of renewable energy is not constant, as it depends on weather and climate. The unpredictable weather events can cause disruption in technological functions within the RE plants. Therefore, there is a high need for the storage for the renewable energy that is gained from the natural resources. Nowadays, many techniques are implied for the increase of storage potency. To grow the storage ability, the companies can do more implementation of technology for further progress. The above mentioned fields are the matter of concern to popularize the use of renewable energy and some fields have to be improved.
4.2.5 India’s future sustainable energy development trend
One of the largest countries on the planet by area, India is home to more than a billion people, a vast economy and a huge military. India’s ability to ensure affordable, clean and reliable energy for its growing population will be vital for the future development of its economy, but avoiding the kind of carbon-intensive path previously followed by other countries will require strong policies, technological leaps and a surge in clean energy investment, according to a new report released today by the International Energy Agency (Singh, 2018). India is one of the largest countries in the world by area, with a population of over 1 billion people along with a large economy and a large army. However, the ability of the country to provide reliable, affordable and clean energy to its growing population is crucial for future economic development. However, as per a report of the International Energy Agency, avoiding other countries’ carbon-intensive pathways will require strong policies, technological breakthroughs, and energy investment (Gulagi et al., 2018). However, it has to be mentioned that India’s framework tied capacity of renewable energy has increased to a large extent. On the other hand, in accordance with the BP Statistical Review of World Energy, India’s initial energy consumption reached 89.2 million tonnes of oil equivalent in the year 2018. Regarding this indicator, India lags behind China and the United States. Moreover, when it denotes sustainable development, the country has ambitious goals.
In Consequence, Narendra Modi’s (Prime Minister of India) government is aiming for 175 GW (GigaWatts) of renewable and/or sustainable capacity by 2022. This is one of the sustainable development goals, which has been proudly published on the website of the Ministry of Renewable and New Energy while targeting 450 GigaWatts within 2030 (cnbc.com, 2021). Additionally, as per DPIIT (or Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade), it was also pointed out that from April 2000 to December 2020, the volume of unconventional energy in India amounted to $ 9.83 billion, and in 2018, the volume of energy in India reached $ 11.1 billion (Bose and Sarkar, 2019). As per the initiatives in 2020 of research firm British Business Energy, India is ranked third in the world for renewable energy investments.
In addition, the government of India has taken other steps to stimulate foreign investment in the sector. Consequently, it signalled a commitment to promoting sustainable energy (green) by announcing an aggressive target (renewable energy capacity) of 450 GW by 2030. The government has also supported this by strengthening the macroeconomic aspects, ensuring the stability of policies and introducing a number of fiscal incentives (Dubash et al., 2018). As such, India continues to enhance its position across the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Ranking as well as in the index of WEF Global Competitiveness. Apart from that, currently, it occupies the third position in the index of EY RE Country Attractiveness. The country permits full FDI (100%) for renewable energy projects to facilitate the easy transaction of technology and capital as well (Majid, 2020). The present government also announced some welcome steps in its first budget after the election, like tax breaks for the construction of mega-systems for lithium batteries, solar cells, charging infrastructure and electric vehicles. Another focus is on reinforcing the network to enable seamless and better integration of renewable energy. However, it can be defined that the fact that the renewable energy market of India will be developed, huge and well-diversified as its project locations have been helping to reduce the perceived risk of investors.
As further good facts for investors, India’s renewable energy industry has matured and is now characterized by its size, predictable returns, high to medium returns, and lower risk, which is precisely what the FIIs (or Foreign Institutional Investors) are looking for. The country has the resources based on which it offers higher risk-adjusted returns than comparable markets (like China or the US). As a whole, this makes India’s SE sector an attractive proposition for IFIs, in future, it will surely obtain the returns for their domestic market (Elavarasan et al., 2020). This new and renewable energy sector is also more attractive than other infrastructure (as sub-sectors) in regard to profit margins and cash flow volatility, particularly in fossil fuel power generation due to the rising capital costs of fossil fuel power production.
Figure: 4.1.1: Development in renewable energy generation in India in recent years
(Source: weforum.org, 2021)
All of the aforementioned aspects have opened the way for a lot of global funds that either have entered the industry or are in an advanced investment discussion stage. The list includes Singapore-based enterprises named GIC Holdings, SoftBank, Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, Brookfield, CPDQ and CPPIB in Canada, Sembcorp and APG from Holland, and ORIX from Japan. All these have decided to invest in the sustainable growth development of India based on the history of renewable sources of this country. On the other hand, Private equity divisions JP Morgan, Morgan Stanley and Goldman Sachs also entered the sector, generating and still relying on significant profits. But in future, the government can do more to counter potential shock absorbers. For example, improving the infrastructure of transmission, simplifying acquisition standards, eliminating post-contract slippers, and revising aggressive tariff rate limits, which could seriously reduce investor margins.
The government is attempting to put in place payment security mechanisms to reduce the risk of not meeting their contractual obligations. As overseas hedging instruments allay investor concerns about currency volatility, there is an opportunity for policymakers to address these issues correctly and quickly, by considering which risks will decrease and investment will increase in future. Eventually, it can be determined that the fight against climate change cannot be won without a vibrant and healthy renewable energy sector in India. Hence, this will require a steady flow of funds and endurable policies over the next few years. However, the current industry profile of the country is well suited to investors while giving hope that India’s renewable and/or sustainable energy success story will continue indefinitely.
At the end of the entire data analysis which is done in the thematic process , much information is collected and evaluated under the themes. It clearly shows the present condition, the comparison between India and other countries in using green energy sources and the future scopes or area of the further development of sustainable energy use.
Chapter 5: Discussion
Key Findings from the Above analysis
India has made considerable progress in recent years, giving electricity to hundreds of millions of people and making significant progress in the use of sustainable energy sources, particularly solar energy. However, the success of India’s energy strategy thus far has given the country confidence in its ability to address the challenges of energy security and sustainability. According to a survey, India’s energy sector is being transformed by rapid growth of solar energy combined with effective policy. India was placed fifth in wind power, fifth in solar power, and fourth in installed renewable energy capacity in 2019. (Gielen et al., 2019). Aside from that, it is clear that the country’s overall power production (including production from grid-connected renewable sources) is increasing at an exponential rate. The country achieved BU 1110.458 and BU 1173.603 in the years 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, respectively.
India now has 96.96 GW of sustainable energy capacity and 25.2 percent of total installed capacity, which presents a great opportunity to expand green data centres by July 2021. As a result, the country plans to install 450 GW (GigaWatts) of renewable and/or sustainable energy capacity by 2030, with 280 GW (more than 60%) coming from solar energy (Irfan et al., 2020). Aside from wealthy countries, India’s sustainable energy usage is adequate and improving. The government of India promotes and enhances the use of renewable energy, which helps to make the use of sustainable energy more desirable in the global sustainable energy market. Sustainable energy has grown in popularity in this country during the previous five years. In 2015, the government announced its desire to shift to a lower-emission electrical grid, with a goal of 175 GW from renewable sources by 2022. In order to pique the interest of both international and domestic investors, India’s government and companies are employing a variety of techniques, including investigating several avenues of investment in the sustainable energy sector. In terms of economic development, the country is fast evolving, with people increasingly urbanising and earning more money. Not only that, but the country’s constant population expansion is also a significant role in the rise in consumer demand for energy.
Because primary energy sources are unable to meet the growing demand for electricity, renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly essential in this country. Sufficient usage of sustainable energy helps to satisfy customers while reducing carbon emissions in the environment and reducing environmental harm. The government is also making a number of efforts to broaden the investment opportunities for international investors. The government has set a goal of utilising 450 GW of green energy capacity by 2030, and this commitment can entice international investors to invest in the country’s sustainable energy sector. The government also announced a slew of favourable policies, including tax cuts for the construction of mega-manufacturing plants for lithium storage batteries, electric vehicles, solar cells, and charging infrastructure. The Indian renewable energy market is growing in size and diversifying in terms of project implementation sites, which has helped investors reduce their risk perception.
In India, the use of sustainable energy resources is increasing rapidly, and the rate of expansion is satisfactory. However, the Indian strategy of integrating sustainable energy in many operations has numerous flaws that should be addressed in the future. Despite the country’s best efforts as well as making hunger alleviation a topmost concern since the 4th Five-year Plan,the country has the greatest number of citizens living under the poverty category. At the present investment level, there has been a massive funding shortfall which hinders the attaining sustainable development progress. Although the NITI Aayog has been expected to act as a crucial role in taking the implementation process ownership, the Aayog have demonstrated their concerns moment as well as again regarding the limited manpower which they need to control like a Herculean activity.
India is one of the world’s largest countries by area, with over a billion people, a tremendous economy, and a massive military. According to a new report released today by the International Energy Agency, India’s ability to provide affordable, clean, and reliable energy for its growing population will be critical for the country’s future economic development, but avoiding the carbon-intensive path previously taken by other countries will require strong policies, technological leaps, and a surge in clean energy investment (Singh, 2018). India’s initial energy consumption, on the other hand, hit 89.2 million tonnes of oil equivalent in 2018, according to the BP Statistical Review of World Energy. India trails behind China and the United States in this category. Furthermore, the country has big ambitions when it comes to sustainable development.
As a result, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s (Indian Prime Minister) government has set a target of 175 GW (GigaWatts) of renewable and/or sustainable capacity by 2022. This is one of the Sustainable Development Goals that was officially stated on the Ministry of Renewable and New Energy’s website, with a target of 450 GigaWatts by 2030. (cnbc.com, 2021). According to the DPIIT (Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade), the volume of unconventional energy in India amounted to $ 9.83 billion from April 2000 to December 2020, and the volume of energy in India reached $ 11.1 billion in 2018. (Bose and Sarkar, 2019). The Indian government has also taken additional measures to encourage international investment in the sector. As a result, it announced an aggressive target (renewable energy capacity) of 450 GW by 2030, signalling a commitment to developing sustainable energy (green). The government has also aided this by bolstering macroeconomic factors, assuring policy stability, and offering a variety of fiscal incentives (Dubash et al., 2018).
The way above analysis address the research questions
In recent times, India has witnessed considerable success in supplying power to hundreds of millions of people as well as making significant progress in the utilisation of renewable energy sources, particularly solar energy. However, the success of India’s energy policy thus far has given the country confidence in its ability to address the country’s energy sustainability and security concerns. According to a survey, solar energy’s rapid expansion, along with strong policy, is revolutionising India’s energy sector.
India is the world’s third largest power consumer and third biggest sustainable energy generator, having renewable energy accounting for 38 percent (136 Gigawatts from out 373 Gigawatts) of overall installed power capacity throughout 2020. India was ranked third in the 2021’s Ernst & Young’s (EY) Renewable Energy Country Attractiveness Index, behind the United States as well as China. The country also has a massive amount of renewable assets and among the world’s largest projects for installing renewable energy goods and infrastructure. Additionally, India is by far the only nation throughout the world with a dedicated ministry of renewable energy production, the New and Renewable Energy ministry, which has begun among the most comprehensive and extensive renewable energy projects across the globe.
The government is also working to implement payment security systems in order to limit the possibility of failure to meet contractual obligations. As investors’ concerns about currency volatility are alleviated by foreign hedging mechanisms, authorities have an opportunity to solve these issues effectively and swiftly by analysing which risks will diminish and investment will increase in the future. Aside from wealthy countries, India’s sustainable energy usage is adequate and improving. The government of India promotes and enhances the use of renewable energy, which helps to make the use of sustainable energy more desirable in the global sustainable energy market. Sustainable energy has grown in popularity in this country during the previous five years. In 2015, the government announced a target of 175 GW from renewable sources by 2022 as part of their transition to a lower-emission electrical grid.
In India, the use of sustainable energy resources is increasing rapidly, and the rate of expansion is satisfactory. However, the Indian strategy of integrating sustainable energy in many operations has numerous flaws that should be addressed in the future. One of the most significant challenges in popularising sustainable energy among a broad spectrum of people is defining the essential indicators. Despite the country’s best efforts as well as making hunger alleviation a topmost concern since the 4th Five-year Plan,the country has the greatest number of citizens living under the poverty category. At the present investment level, there has been a massive funding shortfall which hinders the attaining sustainable development progress.
In 2002, the Kyoto Protocol signed the Clean Growth Mechanism. For the very first time, the 2003 Electricity Act allowed for production, distribution, as well as transportation at the national level along with state levels, as well as the establishment of Renewable Portfolio Guidelines in states (Built Wind Energy Capacity, 2010). Wind farms will be eligible for 80 percent accelerated amortization more than one or two years, as well as a ten-year tax break, as well as favourable conditions on wheeling, financing, and 3rd-party sales, including lower customs as well as excise charges for certain equipment. The State Nodal Authority receives 2.5 percent of the commission’s portion of project costs. Certain portions of the nation, such as the North-East, Jammu & Kashmir’s mountainous areas, and Himachal Pradesh, receive 20 percent to 50 percent higher subsidies than other regions. Research & Development funding is paid approximately 100 percent for government bodies as well as 50 percent for private organisations. In some extreme cases, foreign enterprises may be eligible for subsidy assistance.
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Recommendation
India got to be the essential energy recollector and universal to set up a service of non-conventional vitality assets, in early Eighties. Renewable control in India comes under the domain of the Service of most recent and Renewable vitality (MNRE). Moreover, renewable power assets are centered to develop unfathomably through 2022, counting more noteworthy than multiplying India’s enormous wind control capability and an about 15% overlap in sun vitality from April 2016 levels. As of 30th April 2016 India’s total network intuitively or framework tied renewable vitality capacity have increased to a great extent. It has outperformed the built up capacity of enormous scale hydroelectric control in India.
6.2 Linking with objectives
6.2.1 Objective 1: Define the current situation of sustainable energy in India
India is interestingly set to fulfill the Renewable control control destinations to have basic green development ventures be carried out. The joined together states’ move to a fully sustainable vitality base will be encouraged through the seek for purifier vitality. It has been from the literature review that with 1.39 billion occupants, India is basically the world’s fourth-biggest carbon emitter, the power appears off bookkeeping for the lion’s rate of emissions. At any rate, India has made a momentous improvement in the range of lasting essentialness within the taking after occasions. Worldwide climate exchange has caused the Indian government to create a comprehensive arrangement for expansive get section to cleanliness and maintainable vitality. Through tolerating the overview India epitomizes great measured capacity to transport to a completely viable control network with the help of 2050 much appreciated for its riches of renewable sources . The current circumstances of Indian scheduled provisions and amendments are legalized to optimize resource utilization in a cost effective way. The sustainable and renewable energy resources are periodically recycled to manage the resource and energy scarcity for future generations.
Increasingurbanization and developing wage degrees are capable of an expanded request for electric domestic gear, i.e., an increased request for vitality inside the private sec-tor. The progressed call for in substances for homes,transportation, capital things, and framework is driv-ing the mechanical call for quality. An increased mechanization and the move to groundwater irrigation across the nation is pushing the pumping and tractor demand within the horticulture locale, and in this way the large diesel and control request. Henec to cooperate with the management policies and strategic management of energy sustainability maintenance closely linked to this objective. The recent developmental scenario of sustainable energy recreation in India is justified by this objective .
6.2.2 Objective 2: Critically analyse the Indian policy, and compare it with similar policies around the globe while identifying the gaps in sustainable development
The literature review chapter has been able to highlight that the prior move from conventional Asian and other Western countries, there are many differences in the sustainable development agenda setting plans. In creating the linkage with the relevant comparison established among various countries the worldwide trends of minimizing the rate of carbonization is critical to be determined. A moment of unmistakable drift, and one that’s joined to the slow strategy of de-carbonization that’s depicted over, started inside the early twentieth century and proceeds nowadays. It’s characterised by an expansion of end-use innovations that accept a diversity of fills to induce power. It recommends that generation of power by creating nations can about triple all through the future twenty five a long time. Non-hydropower renewables are anticipated to amplify their share of the whole power given from generally hundredth to four percent throughout that period. Generally, in any case, coal can still rule and account for generally 1/2 the whole generation of power by creating nations in 2030. Hence this is critically justified compared with current trends of sustainable energy combustion and utilization rate determination in the Indian context compared with other countries.
6.2.3 Objective 3: Determine the future development trend of sustainable energy in India by generating the recommendations
Central to the vision of a decentralized and apportioned control future is the moved forward work for small-scale quality turbines who may be family units, businesses, and mini-grids. Those tens of millions of little plants would meet their claim power necessities and bolster additional quality into the framework and draw on the framework whereas wished. The work of lattice, subsequently, might alter from being the best provider of power to one of a stage where excess quality between thousands and thousands of generators and buyers may well be exchanged and transported. In this energy fate, there’s no part of gigantic DISCOMS. As a substitute, there is a chance of getting mini-DISCOMS that would meet the quality needs of little communities in cities and towns. These mini-DISCOMS would feed overabundance quality to the framework and buy power from other mini-DISCOMS when in shortage. Network, in this manner, may be utilized to fulfill a little percent of add up to vitality requests. Several grid connected and fossil fuel decomposed energy are recycled to get the energy resources which is the property for future generation.
It is not an idealistic future. Germany, a leader in quality renewable energy, is the country with the most extreme rooftop photovoltaic solar panels. What Germany has done, India must do on a thousand times greater scale and in a thousand times more decentralized conception. In addition, India can reconcile the control of renewable energy with super efficient home appliances and use them in quality green buildings. It is not necessary to apply high-priced reproduction quality in unnecessary household appliances and buildings.India currently has a super efficient home appliance that consumes a quarter of the control compared to a home appliance available directly in the store. Then, the control of renewable energy in the world should be global in kilowatts and watts, not megawatts and gigawatts.
India has taken full advantage of this brilliant opportunity as the control of renewable energy is of particular importance in the most remote and provincial areas, where there are around 289 million people who do not have access to reliable energy resources. India needs to expand and implement an exciting entity in relation to solar and electric energy yielding suspensory reliance creation with other energy rich countries. The ion chromatographic analysis of differential concentration based volatile and nonvolatile fossil fuels would be preferred for making morer recycled and biodegradable energies. The future AI based sensors should be integrated in the mining and marine turbine energy area of India to socitate more renewable electric energy consumption. The storage plants and manufacturing industries of electric current supply should be empowered with decentralized data transformation technology named Block-chian. Instant access of various engineers, electricians and business administrators are to be made easy by using various cloud computation based softwares.
6.4 Research Limitations
The current research area is without statistical testing about any variance created by positively or negatively skewed variables taken to compare the various parameters of alternative energies. Besides that the reliability and validity related indexes are not measured by doing proper listing about various consumption and conservation rates of different alternative energy resources. Hence, these are the limitations of this research context.
6.5 Future Scope
Elective vitality is the most important choice for India to control poverty reduction without having to expand national framework administrations to provide vitality to homes and private homes. The future researchers can work on different ways to increase the innovative capacity of grid-based solar control to over two hundred thousand MW and wind power to over one hundred thousand MW by 2030. There can also be researchers showing how India can raise huge mechanical wind ranches to saddle up the vigorous seaside resort and offshore wind to spice up the country’s transport of new renewable qualities. The future of organic fossil fuel decomposition and low carbon emitting biodiesel based energy utilization will be very promising to do more research about solar energies.
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