Investigation to Different Models of Strategic Human Resource Management
Number of words: 2825
In the last thirty years, the area of Strategic Human Resources (SHRM) has flourished. During this period, a transition to a strategic conception has taken place, posing employees instead of ‘costs’ as ‘assets.’ The ‘human resources’ have been reconsidered as a major source of competitive advantage. These assets had thus to be handled seriously: carefully chosen, trained, developed and, above all, engaged (Brewster, 2017). The notion of “human capital” was developed, and research output was copious in the decades that followed. In many past investigations, scientists argue that SHRM has an effect on company development and performance. Thus, several SHRM models and their effect on the various companies will be developed in the next section of the investigation.
Background of the Topic
The philosophy and practices of the way people work have been described by Human Resource Management (HRM), which has become the prevalent term. Other names were used in earlier periods (and even today in certain areas), which, to different degrees, are mostly related. These additional words include personal management, personnel management, management of employees, employee relations, management of human capital, industrial relations and management of employment (Delery, and Roumpi,2017). Each of these words shows HRM’s varied backgrounds and also reveals the different philosophies of these methods. For example, some early types of personal governance have paternity in “welfare,” while others have remnants of the “human relations” social-psychological history. Each of these traditions showed an emphasis on people and small groups. However, the words ‘industrial relations’ and ’employment relations’ reflect the collectivist (pluralist) approach to management-worker interactions, which was sometimes and sometimes prevalent across Europe, North America, and abroad during most of the 20th century. All over the globe, this tradition has come into being via concepts of shared benefits and collaborations in union administration (Michael, 2019).
The fields of workplace economy, industrial sociology, psychology, and law are at the disciplinary heart. The phrase ‘Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM, after its Spanish initials) is used to highlight the strategic aspect of a specific approach to talents and organizational management. HRM and SHRM are thus often used on an interchangeable basis. So, it is the basic driver of this research. So, the following research process will identify what types of the SHRM model are viable for any organization.
Aim and Objectives
The aim of the research is to determine the impact of different Strategic Human Resource Management in any organization.
- To investigates different types of Strategic Human Resource management models.
- To analyze the impact of different strategic human resource models on any organization.
- To identify which provisions are viable for each model.
Review of literature
Human Capital is the key element leading a company to a competitive edge. Strategic HRM is introduced to efficiently and efficiently manage employees’ skills, ability, and knowledge to have a major impact on an organization’s strategic objective. Given these considerations, the structure that HR adopts to achieve organizational goals refers to the ‘strategic HRM practices.’ Storey, Wright, and Ulrich, (2019) by using the strategic HRM procedures, the company “unites and guides workers in keeping with the company’s business needs and activities” and makes provision for the company to gain a competitive edge. Gutierrez, Molina, and Kaynak, (2018), further said that the “strategic HRM approach” would allow a company to have a competitive and unparalleled edge when implemented in an organization. Strategic HRM practises are not external resources but rather an internal element that affects a company’s success. In this context, the human resource is considered to be a major resource to be used to increase business performance using other resources. In contrst with Ren, Tang, and Jackson, (2018) perspective, strategic HRM procedures should be seen as a scheme that enhances, motivates and reduces employee turnover so as to guarantee that the business and its workers are implemented efficiently and successfully.
Employees was a “resource” and recognized as a major source of competition (perhaps the main one). The human resource composition prepared with care, carefully chosen, trained and developed, and above all, motivated to provide dedication should be considered seriously. In fact, the change overall has been characterized eloquently as a journey from control to commitment (Cooke, 2018). In addition to this, the notion of ‘human capital’ has come to the fore forward and actually provides an economic basis (Boselie, Harten, and Veld, 2021). This reconception corresponded with the development in the strategy domain of the “resource-based perspective” (Yong et al., 2019). The significance of establishing a connection between a corporate strategy and a human resources plan has been stressed. The approach to human resources replaced ‘personnel management’ and emphasized the need of aligning HR policies and practices both vertically and horizontally. The Harvard Model (Kianto, Sáenz, and Aramburu, 2017) created a flow from the environment to company strategy and decisions on people’s resources, results, and more. At the same time, significant contingency models and frameworks Kim, et al., (2019), developed which linked relevant HR strategies with the location of a company with regard to such contingencies as the stage and changes in product/service features (e.g., low cost, innovation or service quality). Empirical research has shown the response of big mainstream businesses and government agencies to these concepts (O’riordan, 2017).
Content Model Organizational SHRM
There are two major models, Labelle and Wils. In his research Cooke, (2018), he discovered that corporate strategy was the key ingredient of the organizational HR strategy and that internal and external environmental variables affected the contents both of the organizational HR strategy and of the corporate strategy. Researchers defined several kinds of HRM practises and objectives in line with business strategy. Singh et al., (2020), in the USA conducted a similar study. He found a significant connection between the business strategy content and the human resources strategy content for the organization.
Content Model Functional SHRM
This category has a variety of different models. Because each model is not discussed in depth in this article, only a sample number may be assessed. Macke,and Genari, (2019), believe in their concept that there must be two strategic fits. One is an outside fit in which HRM practises fit into the organizational growth phase, and the other is an interior fit in which HRM components complement one other and support one another. Therefore, the substance of the HRM practises is dictated by the organization’s growth stage.
Process Model for Organizational SHRM
This category has a very large number of models. However, a notable job restriction in the area was that the HRM function failed to meet strategy or organizational circumstances in more comprehensive terms. Boon et al., (2018), for instance, offered a framework for improving organizational efficiency via the integration with human resources of the strategic planning and management function. The same view was taken by Yong et al., (2019).
Process Model Functional SHRM
In the case of study focusing on the broader organization, this category is particularly focused on staff role in relation to organizational SHRM process models. The only one in this category identified was Ardito,and Petruzzelli, (2017). It appears that up to now, there have been no systemic efforts to investigate how the roles of staff determine their tactics, the responsive variables or the quality of the outcomes achieved. Yusoff et al., (2020), proposes in its model a method by which the human resources of the business may be assessed and divided into four groups: “stars,” “children with problems,” “cash cows”, and “dogs.” In order to categorize employees, the matrix is composed of a performance indicative vertical axis and a potential indicator horizontal axis.
Gap in Literature
Although various studies have played an important role in the content theory of different SHRM strategies, the relationship between companies with a stable strategy and others with an unstable strategic approach has not been explored to see if the company strategy contributes stronger to the content of organizational HR Strategies in times of turbulence or normality. Companies having the same business strategy but with various organizational HR strategies also have to be investigated. Consequently, the researchers did not early confirm the effect of each approach in many circumstances. This is thus the main focus of the current study.
Research technique essentially relates to the methods used to describe, interpret and forecast researchers’ findings (Snyder, 2019). Methodologies are also examined from which data are gathered. Methodical methods and procedures are explained in-depth to explain how research is carried out. A research method is nothing else than what revolves around research technology. However, the next part should contain a proper analysis of the research process and an integrated strategy to conduct the study. The summary of the study will be frequently based on the idea behind the research and is specifically linked to research questions.
Design for research
These techniques would be helpful to complete the analysis successfully and to get an acceptable conclusion once the study finishes. The analysis demonstrates the whole method utilized to conduct the investigation. The results of this study are thus mostly will be verified through secondary sources. The research thus focuses mainly on secondary data sources so that data sources are relevant and validated. The research method and investigative philosophy should be selected based on this analysis’s variety of research onion strategies.
Figure: Saunders Research Onion
Source: Kumar, 2018
Philosophy of Research
The research philosophy shows concern about ideas for techniques used for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and generating findings. The research philosophy behind the present research will be interpretative (Kumar, 2018). The research philosophy has four kinds: positivism, pragmatism, interpretivism and realism. For performing such kinds of scientific research, interpretative is employed in the research of a critical examination of the study subject supported by evidence. The correct data and facts are also matched with interpretativeness for the relevant investigation about proper SHRM models and Strategies. Interpretive techniques are also will be used since the data from different sources may be compared with the strategy selected for the designated study, both easy and convenient. This method may also include interpretations of the researchers’ views and experiences.
Various methods may be found to do research (Snyder, 2019). Different methods, including deductive, abductive and inductive, are used in the research process. Among the three main ways in research, the deductive method is regarded as the best proof approach. A hypothesis or idea is developed, and the concepts are evaluated using a logical method when a study subject is proven to be true in many instances. A new assumption starts and ends in a new theory. In other words, an inductive method doesn’t react to theories, and a deductive approach is needed to build theory and monitor it throughout the study. This method is thus appropriate for this investigation, and it may be successfully combined between prior research and findings.
Figure: Deductive Approach
Source: Snyder, 2019
This study will be focused on secondary data, such as publications, peer reviews and many websites that are often accessible with a wealth of information. The participation and failure to conduct the study were included in this approach. About 50 papers will be gathered to investigate the research subject, which eliminated only those of importance to the issue and did not relate to the subject. Data such as polling questions or results, etc., should not be included as a result of the research being a secondary review. For the effective completion of the study, the compact secondary analysis research method has therefore been used.
The investigation was performed ethically. None of the study paper’s material or facts has been disputed. A thorough analysis was carried out, and the findings were presented with suitable instruments in the study. The resources utilized are also gathered and ethically evaluated. The research identifies a communication approach that will assist everyone in a hospital via literary examination and secondary evidence.
An exhaustive approach is suggested in this article for the strategic management of human resources. The implementation of fundamental principles of the model will make HRM a proactive partner and not a reactive tool in the company’s business. However, it should be stressed that the model contains many fairly complicated subsystems, which need a considerable amount of work to guarantee their efficiency. It is also essential that the model is functioning nicely as one entity in all its parts. The final result may easily be distorted by one missing piece, leading the whole human resources component to be under-used. Therefore, it is high time for organizations to adopt the strategic strategy suggested for HRM. So, it is expected that through the present research proper suitable SHRM model will be identified as per the viability of the situation within any organization.
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