Essay on Prevention of Mother to Child HIV Transmission
Number of words: 2568
Patch 1: Ethics in H.I.V and Aids Transmission prevention from Mother to Child
In relation to Ethics in the management of healthcare systems, it is essential to note that women and children are the most vulnerable groups. The potential risk that might affect patients with H.I.V and Aids from this group includes stigma and discrimination. The United Kingdom has various ethical practices and legislations. These elements come under the management of medical ethics, confidentiality and confidentiality legislations. The process is important in protecting H.I.V and Aids patients by providing medical practitioners Knowledge on the impact of confidentiality on patients.
The introduction of Antiretroviral drugs in preventing H.I.V and Aids needs to be seen as a prevention technique not a vaccine. In other regions, utilization of the drugs relate to provision of vaccines. These drugs serve as vaccines to children against H.I.V infection and as treatment to mothers. Use of Antiretroviral drugs for mothers prevents spread of infection t infants. However, it is ethical for medical practitioners to illustrate to patients that there is a possibility of them contacting anaemia (Brittain et al., 2015). The other ethical consideration relates to an increasing number of orphans because of H.I.V epidemic. Babies born from infected mothers do not live long: this are views of some individual. This is a misconception. With right procedures, mothers with H.I.V and Aids infection may not infect their children.
Ethics is an important aspect for any H.I.V and Aids mother to child prevention programs. In relation to the topic, one of the ethical considerations is provision of right of choice to mothers. Mothers need to make their choices on methods of prevention of H.I.V and Aids to infants in full knowledge. Coercion should not be a method of use in implementing these procedures. Even though a decision may be for the good of a mother, their decision needs to be the last objective.
Patch 2: How Qualitative research Contribute to evidence-based Practice
Qualitative research is a technique used by researcher by utilizing data collection instruments in answering why and how events occur. It acts by providing realities on events that are associated with the social aspects of individuals. Qualitative research has various contributions to Evidence-based practice in the practice of medicine. This aspect portrays six important contributions to medicine. The first important aspect of Qualitative research is the provision of hypothesis generalization (McCusker and Gunaydin, 2015). Validation and development of instruments of study is another important aspect of the study. The other property of the aspect relates to the development of nursing interventions.
Development of new research question is another important benefit of Quantitative research. There is also a need for the provision of content in order to evaluate nursing practices in the field. Qualitative research is important in understanding why certain phenomena occur. However, in the collection of data, researchers in the field utilize photographs, interviews or direct observations. Quantitative research methods differ from Qualitative methods based on principle. Qualitative research builds on portraying certain phenomena while quantitative tries to generate numerical data from a population. The tools to use in Qualitative research include personal interviews as well as observations.
Interviews may be in use, when the research subjects are few providing an opportunity to develop a quarter system. On the other hand, observations come to use when a given population is huge for subdivisions. Qualitative research has its advantages as well as disadvantages. One of the advantages of Qualitative research is the probability of covering certain details in in-depth form. On the other hand, interviews are not guided by a particular format.
Individuals can transform their data questions as situations allows. Qualitative research covers a small group of individuals; this means that researchers are able to capture information with ease. In relation to is disadvantages, Qualitative research usually depends o the skills of the researcher. The method of data collection in this form of research makes it expensive in relation to analysis and interpretation (McCusker, and Gunaydin, 2015).
Patch 3: Quantitative Research and Evidence-based Social Care
Quantitative research refers to the analysis of observable phenomena using computational or statistical techniques. A researcher seeks for phenomena in the environment. After collecting this data, they analyse its facts using statistical procedures. Nursing as a profession utilize evidence based practice in analysing phenomena. In the Nursing, sphere evidence based practice refers to utilization of three perspectives. The three bases for analysis are clinical observers, external evidence as well as perspectives of caregivers. The process of evidence-based research follows particular processes. The process begins with the formation of clinical questions (McCusker, and Gunaydin, 2015).
The next step involves seeking for evidence from the field of study. Assessment of the evidence provides the next step followed by making of appropriate conclusions. The various paradigms that Quantitative research utilizes include Ontology, Philosophy, law of nature and methodology (McCusker, and Gunaydin, 2015). The various data collection methods applicable to Quantitative research designs include use of Questionnaires, Interviews, Observations as well as scales. There are various advantages as well as disadvantages of Quantitative research. In terms of data collection quantitative research, provide easier access of information. This form of research can be able to test hypothesis because it utilizes statistical methodologies. However, this method of data collection does not consider natural phenomena or behavioural characteristics.
Patch 4: Influence of Women to Child Transfer of H.I.V and Aids in the Workplace in UK
Rationale of Study
H.I.V and Aids transmission from mother to child has been a cause of death for many infants. Research shows that the epidemic has been a cause of up to 3 million children on the global scene. For this, reasons there is need to have effective prevention procedures to reduce infection spread from mother to Child. The goal is preventing H.I.V infection spread from mother to child. It further concentrates on various means of preventing unwanted pregnancies. It concentrates on means of preventing infection spread from mothers living with the virus to their children.
Working in the healthcare system in the UK nursing practitioners undergoes various challenges in diagnosing patients living with H.I.V and Aids. By the end of the year 1998, the number of women diagnosed with H.I.V and Aids was low. This shows that opportunities towards reduction of mother to child transmission were low. Since then the nursing fraternity has enforced a number of strategies. The nursing fraternity recommends in the UK that counselling and testing becomes part of antenatal care (Townsend et al 2008). The nursing fraternity includes working groups of the UK medical persons, Midwifery and Members of the public health laboratory.
The main goal for prevention of H.I.V and Aids transfer from mother to child relies on recommending testing during antenatal care. However new challenges has evolved in relation to therapy services offered at medical facilities. Antiretroviral therapy has been among the best treatment in preventing the spread of the virus. However, a strong dosage of the drug may have an influence on the unborn child. Almost 90% of women diagnosed with H.I.V and Aids in the UK reveal that infection came due to sexual interactions (Townsend et al 2008).
Since the year 2000 routine H.I.V and Aids, testing has been a routine aspect in Antenatal facilities. This influence has seen a reduction in the number of H.IV and Aids transmission from mother to child. It is therefore imperative to state that improved H.I.V detection has an influence in the reduction of the spread of the virus from mother to child. The Nursing Fraternity in the UK, need to restructure its working relations. One of the ways is the development of local as well as multi-disciplinary approach to offering care (Townsend et al 2008). The other strategy is strengthening of national networks within every location of the country.
The other challenges that take place in the field increases risks of vertical infection of the virus. One of the challenges that affect the fight of H.I.V and Aids includes the refusal of patients to undergo test. The other challenging aspect is the influence of multi-drug resistant drugs. This influence leads creation of various strategies to limiting the influence of the virus. In the UK, the spread of H.I.V and Aids relates to maintenance of standards. The nursing fraternity needs to maintain high standards of care to minimize spread of the virus.
Justification of Methodology of Study
The study focus on inquiring about influences of mother to child infection preventive procedures, in the United Kingdom. This research focuses its findings in medical facilities in the UK.. The methodology of the research will focus attention on Medical practitioners, Nursing and laboratory testing teams. It focuses on prevention of mother to Child infection considering the policy of the country on the subject. In considering UK’s policy of prevention of H.I.V and Aids infection from mother to child, certain aspects come into consideration (Beaulieu et al., 2014). Apart from policy, the research relies on international, sector and governmental data banks. Other considerations for the research come from data banks of various clinics and from teams.
The study considers the use of Qualitative research. Use of questioners provides various aspects on the topic of preventing H.I.V and Aids infection from mother to child. This research relies on producing qualitative data. The concept in consideration in these questionnaires, question the importance of various preventive strategies by the government, Health and nursing practitioners. It lays emphasis on the influence of counselling and testing services. Mothers are able to provide their views on levels of ethics in various counselling centres (Haile, 2015). Discrimination and stigma are other important aspects of consideration on the questionnaires. Interviews provide another basis for providing data for the research.
Data Collection/ Analysis
Data collection on the research utilizes questionnaires as a mode of collection. It further focuses on using interviews in concurrence with questionnaires. The questionnaires are self administered to Various in various healthcare facilities within the UK.. It includes the utilization of face-to face interviews (Ngulube, 2015). The process of data collection provides various details on the importance of various aspects on prevention of H.I.V infection from mother to children. Information is gathered using questionnaires.
Questionnaires provide data of educated mothers. The researches utilize various teams of individuals who distribute it to prospective locations and individuals. Face-to face procedure of data collection provides important information on various challenges nursing practitioners face in prevention of the Virus in the UK. Open-ended questions reveal various attitudes of respondents on their knowledge on prevention of infection from mother to child (Ngulube, 2015). In respect to data analysis the research, utilize two strategies. The strategies in use include constant comparative analysis. In respect to this, previous data are analysed against present findings. The next step of analysis is narrative strategy.
Sampling relates to selecting parameters that helps in fulfilling the needs of a research study. It is the selecting of a portion of the larger group for survey purposes. Probability sampling is the procedure of use by this research (Ngulube, 2015). Simple random sampling provides data from mothers and medical practitioners from the country. The focus on technocrats in the government of the country provides details on policy. Simple random sampling has the efficiency of meeting information on research without bias.
The study targets women of childbearing age. This group of women represent above 21 years. The group eligible for the study are individuals who have either tested for H.I.V and Aids or not. It also includes groups of mothers who visit antenatal clinics. It targets mothers who have children and infected with the Virus (Love, 2008). The other target list includes medical practitioners. The influence of practitioners will provide valid information on structures of medical facilities and their goals in preventing mother to child infections. The target population includes health practitioners that are either on internship or on working as full-time employees. The report will further inquire about their usage on contraceptives. It also provides details on the availability of contraceptives in medical facilities.
In testing, the validity of the instrument to use in conducting the study piloting is necessary. Piloting takes place around various locations of the study. The piloting procedures will take place in various locations within the UK. The piloting procedures focus on providing questionnaires to 40 employees of various grades in the nursing fraternity. This group of women need to be individuals living with H.I.V and Aids. The group also need to be mothers living with the virus while also bearing children. In relation, the procedure-nursing practitioners able to answer questionnaires provide their views for analysis. Those not able to answer questionnaires answer questions in interview sessions (Ngulube, 2015).
Prevention of mother to child infection of H.I.V and Aids needs to be the goal of every healthcare plan. There are various prevention plans and aspects to consider. One of the aspects in consideration is the preventive strategies. In respect to this policy, makers need to improve on policy formulation and strategies that would assist nursing practitioners (Qingguo et al. 2013). Education is another aspect that needs consideration by healthcare policy makers. Mothers need to have information of the available procedures in preventing mother to child infection of H.I.V and Aids infections.
Karthas, N 1990. ‘When Children Have A.I.D.S.: How To Support The Family’, Nursing, 20, 11, Pp. 32c-32f.
Gyves, P 2006.’A Tale of Two Worlds’, America, 195, 16, pp. 16-19.
Love, MC 2008. ‘Woman and Child’, America, 199, 19, p. 10.
Van den Berg, W, Brittain, K, Mercer, G, Peacock, D, Stinson, K, Janson, H, & Dubula, V 2015. ‘Improving men’s participation in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV as a maternal, neonatal, and child health priority in South Africa’, Plos Medicine, 12, 4, pp. 1-8.
Qingguo, Z, Xiaozhuang, Z, Li, W, Tingting, C, Zhijiang, L, Longchang, X, & Shouyi, Y 2013. ‘Effectiveness of a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission program in Guangdong province from 2007 to 2010’, BMC Public Health, 13, 1, pp. 1-7.
Dos Santos, M, Kruger, P, Mellors, S, Wolvaardt, G, & van der Ryst, E 2014. ‘An exploratory survey measuring stigma and discrimination experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa: the people living with HIV stigma index’, BMC Public Health, 14, 1, pp. 1-24.
Beaulieu, M, Adrien, A, Potvin, L, & Dassa, C 2014. ‘Stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS: validation of a measurement scale’, BMC Public Health, 14, 1, pp. 45-69.
Haile, D, Belachew, T, Berhanu, G, Setegn, T, & Biadgilign, S 2015. ‘Complementary feeding practices and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia’, Journal Of Health, Population & Nutrition, 34, 1, pp. 1-9.
Ngulube, P 2015. ‘Trends in Research Methodological Procedures Used in Knowledge Management Studies’, African Journal Of Library, Archives & Information Science, 25, 2, pp. 125-143.
McCusker, K, & Gunaydin, S 2015. ‘Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research’, Perfusion, 30, 7, pp. 537-542.
Townsend, C.L., Cortina-Borja, M., Peckham, C.S., de Ruiter, A., Lyall, H. and Tookey, P.A., 2008. Low rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV following effective pregnancy interventions in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 2000–2006. Aids, 22(8), pp.973-981.