Essay on Human Resource Management Practices

Published: 2021/11/12
Number of words: 5949


Executive Summary3
Importance of Human Resource department in organizations6
Six significant forces influencing human behavior at work7
Employee Performance, Development and Reward & Factors that Influence H.R. Decision Making10
Competency-Based Questions for the Interview15
The rationale for the Answers19
Critical Evaluation of the use of a Person Specification19

Executive Summary

This paper looks to examine the role of a robust Human Resource department in the development of the organization. We examine the importance of the Human Resource department, Human Resource practice, and its influencing factors. The paper also provides an elaboration about the upcoming challenges encountered by Human Resource managers in their line of duty in the 21st century. The literature analysis digs deeper into the issues that energy various challenging factors and practices of the H.R. management discipline within the 21st century. The implications of the Human Resource managers are also discussed mainly with the arrival of a new breed of highly skilled workers who are younger, well educated, have the knowledge, are extremely confident, and are not entirely interested in the paycheck but their welfare in their job as they check not only what they can do for the company but also what the company can do for them. In the paper, we will look at the crucial challenges pertaining to human resource management. The challenges discussed in the paper include work arrangements, gaining maximum market share, demographic shift, and enhancement in creativity and innovation, employee-employer relationship, managing the cost, reward, and compensation system.


Human Resource plays a vital role in the development, reinforcement, and changing an organization’s culture. Training and development, pay, onboarding, and performance management are all essential elements of the business culture covered by Human Resource. Human Resources (H.R.) is the division of a business that has the responsibility to find, screen, recruit, and train job applicants, as well as administering employee-benefit programs. Without Human Resources management, companies will not be able to recruit and retain employees effectively. The Human Resource department extracted its roots from the discipline of organizational psychology and has proven to be an integral practice in the management of organizations. In modern businesses, the Human Resource department has evolved to become strategic and has grown to become a vital force. Chatzoglou & Diamantidis (2019) elaborates that in the world of business, as time passes, competition keeps increasing, and the sole factor that anchors the competitive edge of an organization is Human Resource management.

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Human Resource plays a significant role in helping companies deal with the fast-changing business environment and the ever-increasing demand for quality employees in the 21st century. Additional roles of H.R. include compensation and benefits, firing, recruitment, and keeping up to date with laws that may affect the company and its employees. Today, companies are shifting away from the traditional in-house human resource administrative tasks and outsourcing duties such as benefits and payroll to vendors situated outdoors. The main task of H.R. department is the maximization of the productive capacity of employees and protection of the company from any issues arising within the workforce. Research conducted by Hafez (2018) found crucial activities related to people that the Human Resource has to do effectively for value addition to the organization. Their findings concluded that these factors include applying new approaches in designing the work process, effective management and use of people, and tying performance appraisal and compensation to competency. The researchers also emphasized increasing flexibility, creativity, and innovation for the enhancement of competitiveness and managing the implementation and integration of technology through training and communicating with workers. Human Resource departments adopting Human Resource Management (HRM) practices play the role of thecompany’s workforce improvement more actively. Such HR departments are able to offer process recommendations, approaches, and business solutions to the process of managing the organization. One such example is theGoogle’s parent company, Alphabet that embraces the adoption of proactive approaches to employee relations. The company motivates its employees at Google by offering lucrative compensation and a wide range of employee facilities at thecompany’s headquarters, horseshoe pits, and roller hockey rinks as they understand that employee productivity is directly linked to a happy workforce.


The human Resource must be considered for every company regardless of size, and the question should not be whether H.R. is necessary but should be reframed to how effectively Human resources can be delivered by a company. Most organizations find it cost-effective and convenient to outsource transactional services such as payroll, benefits administration, taxes, and partnering with strategic Human Resource partners. Reasonable employee compensation increases productivity since happy employees feel valued, thus increasing their loyalty and motivation. They tend to work harder knowing their efforts are recognized, which brings job satisfaction that would benefit the company as they would likely retain such employees for longer. Organizational profitability is significantly increased when a company can attract top talent through lucrative pay perks and benefits as they would beat the competition through their benefits packages.

Another HRM practice that raises organizational profitability and productivity is employee involvement in decision-making. Through this combined effort, employees can share different views that might help the organization move forward. They can share challenges whose implementation might be what the company misses for its boom and bust.

Importance of Human Resource department in organizations

Human Resource plays critical roles in the development, motivation, and retaining of employees. Some of the roles are stated herein. To begin with, the H.R. department sustains business in an organization through succession planning. Dany and Torchy, (2017) argue that it is the duty of the H.R. department to develop the succession plan. The succession plan enables the organization to identify employees with requisite responsibilities and the promise for transitioning thecompany’s leadership to the next phase. The human Resource department also plays a crucial role in safety and risk management as employers are tasked with maintaining safe working conditions as required by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations via the maintenance of accurate work logs and development of programs with the aim of workplace injuries and fatality reduction. Specialists in workplace safety also raise awareness about the safe handling of dangerous equipment and hazardous chemicals. The Human Resources department coordinates the training and development activities by assessing which areas are lacking and require training and development. This is also a crucial step to forge the good relationship between the employee and the employer, all in effort to prepare aspiring employees for leadership roles in the future.

Human Resource plays a vital role in the recruitment and onboarding practices in an organization. They screen resumes and schedule interviews to process potential employees. In typical terms, the H.R. determines the best employees that fit into the needs of the organization. The H.R. staff who specialize in employee relations enable the organization to achieve high performance, boost their morale and their levels of satisfaction. They minimize the exposure of the company to allegations about liability and unfair employment practices. Workplace issues are identified, investigated, and resolved by the H.R. department to avoid embroiling the organization into legal matters that pertain to state and federal anti-harassment and discrimination laws and regulations. The benefits specialists in the Human Resource department are tasked with reducing the costs of the company that relates to attrition, turnover, and hiring replacement workers.

Six significant forces influencing human behavior at work

There are internal or external forces or factors influencing human behavior at work, and they all depend on the situation and have the potential to cause either negative or positive impacts.

Organizational Culture

Organizational factors refer to the underlying values, assumptions, beliefs, and other interactive means adding to the social and psychological environment in the workplace. According to Chatzoglou and Diamantidis (2019), individuals in the workplace develop meaning and stability through the organizational culture, affecting employee morale. Each company has its different culture and negative organizational culture results in low morale promotes engagement in unwanted behavior, and employee fraud. The productivity of the employee is thus affected, and organizational performance reduces. The management needs to encourage positive culture by enhancing diversity and clear communication structures. A positive organizational culture would promote innovation since employees would feel part of the organization.

Workplace diversity

Workplace diversity which is the understanding and acceptance of varied individual characteristics, has an influence on employee behavior at the workplace. These include race, gender, ethnicity, religion, and different ideologies individuals may hold. Organizations that embrace diversity tend to benefit through increased performance since employees communicate and collaborate. Bias and stereotypes may be a considerable hindrance to proper interaction, especially among different genders and ethnicities. For instance, race bias against blacks may see whites get better positions in an organization and vice versa. Since the situation lowers the esteem of affected parties, it is prudent that organizations condemn bias and stereotyping. The organization should enact stringent measures to counter harassment and establish mitigation strategies.

Supervisory Management Influence

This is the act of employee management and oversight. Most organizations depend on this aspect to organize human resources into units that can help in the achievement of organizational objectives. Employees will be guided through tasks by these units. They will also be rewarded or punished fairly to articulate the goals of the organization and foster cooperation. The supervisory behavior of the manager is emphasized since it could affect employee motivation, performance, communication, and attitude. An abrasive and loud manager may inspire negative characteristics amongst employees and hinder workplace relationships. Likewise, when employees are micromanaged, they tend to feel equally demotivated despite them being skilled. Therefore, it is recommended that proper channels of communication be put in place, especially those that promote respect and dignity to views of the employees (Martin, 2014). Human resource managers are urged to provide employee autonomy.

Work Group Influence

The workplace environment consists of individuals typically existing in groups within the organization. Some of the factors that contribute to the success or failure of such groups include processes, group structure, and resources. The roles of individual employees and group size are captured in the group structure. Processes deal with communication aspects, power dynamics, and decision-making. Consequently, positive group behavior influences individual behavior positively. When there is negative group behavior and feelings of being sidelined, negative behavior is encouraged, which results in lower outputs and increase employee turnover. It is recommended that team leaders step upfront to reinforce positive behavior in the team, and members will likely emulate their leader. Every group is prone to conflict; thus, sound problem-solving techniques should be employed.

Job satisfaction

Ob satisfaction is the feeling of fulfillment that employees derive from their work. This can influence the behavior of employees in the workplace. Job satisfaction affectsemployees’ commitment levels, work turnover rate, and absenteeism. Dissatisfied employees will likely be absent from work or take their organizational duties lightly, which affects performance negatively. Satisfied employees will be highly motivated and engage in corporate duties wholeheartedly. Organizations can create incentive programs to reward employees appropriately.

Personal characteristics and Family Influence

Besides the workplace, employees have a social support system for their friends and families. Since each person comes from a different background from the rest, the experiences they go through before joining the workforce shape their characteristics. Essentially, a person brings those personal characteristics and family influences to the workplace. This may have a positive or a negative influence on the behavior of employees at the workplace. For example, personality traits like openness enhance curiosity, creativity, and welcoming new ideas. Employees who are introverts conversely, may keep essential things to themselves even if they may be of help in providing solutions to a problem. The organization, however needs not compel employees to change if their characteristics do not affect the workplace behavior negatively. The organization should create an environment that encourages participation and mold the growth of desirable characteristics.

Employee Performance, Development and Reward & Factors that Influence H.R. Decision Making

HRM refers to the policies and systems that influence the behavior, attitudes, and performance of the members of the organization, intending to increasing the organization’s competitiveness and learning capacity. HRM practices are outlined by organizational models in which different inherent factors interact. These practices are translated into policies for an organization, which is defined as a set of principles and rules, which guide decisions and conduct the different activities of the company in relation to HRM. For most companies, there are five types of policies: supply, application, maintenance, development, and control policies.

  • Supply policies are about supplying needs organizational aspects at the H.R. level; it implies the practices of H.R. research, recruitment, selection, and integration;
  • The application policies correspond to the analysis and description practices functions, H.R. planning, career plans, and job evaluation unemployment;
  • Maintenance policies are the practices of retaining workers, management of salaries, social benefit plans and hygiene and safety at work;
  • Development policies aim at the development of the worker and organization through training;
  • Control policies refer to databases, information systems H.R. information, and audits.

Reward system within the organization is one of the other H.R. practices, which serves to provide better management of workers, and it is essential to understand that they cannot be seen as an isolated component. Before defining the remuneration, it is necessary to plan the labor, that is, planning the type of labor to be selected and recruited for the execution of the function. After this planning comes the function analysis phase, which by the job description to consider the payment to the worker for the execution, and also, the Evaluation of the functions that goes through its classification to understand what are the requirements that each function requires.

The analysis of functions can be defined as a structured process of collecting and organizing information about tasks and operations that a person or group must carry out in the context of their work and still, the identification of the essential requirements to perform its function, that is, understand what the know-how is, skills and competencies needed, even before defining the value to be attributed to the function. After the job definition phase and determining the salary to be paid by their execution, there are a series of adjacent and consequent H.R. activities, namely, Recruitment and Selection, which goes through the process of choosing the candidate indicated for that function, taking into account the salary offered and the skills that the individual has. Al Mamun and Hasan (2017) define recruitment for an organization as a”set of techniques and procedures with the objective of attracting potential candidates, duly qualified and able to occupy a specific position in the organization whose aim is to identify the worker indicated for that function able to achieve the proposed objectives.

After recruitment is done, the time to select the worker is the process by which an organization chooses the people who seem most suited to the specific and available functions. The explanation continues with the practices of Evaluation, training, and career management, where the HRM identifies the”most efficient and greatest potentia” and to value them, monitoring and professional development. Performance evaluation is an essential practice of HRM, namely for the rewards system, that is, it is a tool that allows understanding if the worker is reaching the proposed objectives or not, if he is achieving these goals should be rewarded; otherwise, it is necessary corrective measures, such as training.

Performance evaluation is defined as a system of formal and systematic ways to assess the work done by workers. The objective of this Evaluation is to understand if the objectives were achieved or not, and how performance can be improved,”how to increase goals and results to be achieve”, and also communicate feedback to the worker so that he can be guided and understood where he needs to improve. Performance evaluation should be extended to the entire organization, without exceptions. Organizations should understand the know-how, skills, and competencies needed, even before defining the value to be attributed to the function.

After the job definition phase and determining the salary to be paid by their execution, there are a series of adjacent and consequent H.R. activities, namely, Recruitment and Selection, which goes through the process of choosing the candidate indicated for that function, taking into account the salary offered and the skills that the individual has. Recruitment requires a set of techniques and procedures with the objective of attracting potential candidates, duly qualified and able to occupy a specific position in the company whose objective is to identify the worker indicated for that function, able to achieve the proposed objectives.

Once recruited and selected, people join organizations, seeking the exercise of their functions and personal fulfillment, in addition to the objectives and obligations relevant to each position. It is up to the company to socialize the individual based on their organizational culture, thus ensuring that these assumptions are achieved. With socialization, the new employee renounces a portion of his freedom of action when he joins the organization: he agrees to obey working hours, perform a certain activity, follow the guidance of his superior, meet certain internal rules and regulations, etc. Thus, the organization seeks to induce the adaptation of the individual’s behavior to his needs and goals, strongly marking his fingerprints. On the other hand, the new participant will be seeking to influence the organization and its manager to create a work situation that will provide them with satisfaction and the achievement of their personal goals.

Socializing the individual in the organization, is a process that does not occur only when he is hired, but, throughout his permanence in the position, when there is a change of function, after some transfer, of department, sector, or geographic region, as well as when there is professional growth within the corporate hierarchy. This process must take place through capacity building and training. Also, information is the critical factor in this process as the critical factor of success in organizational socialization is associated with the level and amount of information that an employee receives at the beginning of his activities because the more information pertinent to his permanence obtain, the greater your performance and interest in your job. Human development, in the organizational context, goes beyond the simple training of the individual, while the latter has its focus on the short term and the execution of the tasks of the current position, the latter has on the motivation, on the long term, and new tasks or functions its focus aiming at the growth of the individual, also guaranteeing the valorization of the staff, enabling the professional to assume new and future positions in the organization.

Development is the long-term process for enhancing employees’ skills and motivations to make them future valuable members of the organization. The development includes not only training but also career and/or other experiences. Training is just one component of the development process, which includes all the experiences that strengthen and consolidate the characteristics of desirable employees in terms of their functional roles. The greatest challenge for contemporary organizations is to introduce feedback into their daily routine, and that this is a powerful tool for the development of people and consequently of the organization. This resistance can be broken through training, seminars, or lectures, which explain and encourage the use of feedback in the work environment. To be successful in the practice of feedback, it is important to know exactly what was the result achieved within what was expected, and, for this to happen, there are many tools available for the performance assessment to be as appropriate as possible (Carroll et al., 1999).

It is worth mentioning that there is no successful recipe for performance evaluation and that each company tends to build its way of evaluating its collaborators.

Each system meets certain specific objectives, according to the level and areas of allocation of the personnel involved. It is possible to either use several performance evaluation systems or structure each one of them in an evaluation method that is appropriate to the type and characteristics of the system. People should be evaluated independently; no matter how basic their functions, their performance should be evaluated according to the position held, according to the guidelines and training received, and the opportunities received from your immediate manager. Although performance evaluation is defined as a professional improvement technique, it is usually loaded with other objectives, such as justifying salaries, eliminating bad employees, and the correlation between the result obtained and the employee’s performance. This can produce serious problems and obstacles so that the information is kept up to date, that it is used in an ethical manner and that the evaluation interviews are conducted in such a way as to produce an effective result, and not just a mere routine task.


The method we used in the research to gather information about Human Resource effectiveness to increase organizational productivity and profitability is the interview. I conducted in-person interviews with former job applicants for the H.R. positions in top U.S. companies, most of whom became runners up and were not selected for the positions they applied for. I booked an appointment for a 1 hour interview 2 weeks beforehand, and my aim was to understand the criteria the company uses to ensure the best fit employees are employed and how they motivate their employees. I also wanted to get their view by providing them with a questionnaire with questions that pointed out what could be the best strategies for the Human Resource department. The method used discusses the effectiveness of such HRM practices as compensation management, staff development, employee involvement in decision making, and performance management. I divided the interview conduct into two groups having 189 members each. Some of the questions I asked during the interview include:

Competency-Based Questions for the Interview

  1. When starting work for a new client, what are a few things you like to do to get to know the person and make them feel comfortable with you around?
  2. What is the most challenging task you have completed as a personal assistant?
  3. Do you understand the role of this position? Why do you think you will excel as an assistant?
  4. Tell me about a time you had to multi-task. How comfortable are you handling more than one task at a time?
  5. What personal assisting tasks do you feel you are exceptionally good at?
  6. Are you a patient person? When has your patience shown in the workplace?


From the questionnaire, the first group that comprised 189 members averaged almost similar responses, although not identical in their responses. Most of the participants (102) we’re good at employee development strategies as personal assisting tasks that they felt they are good at. Notably, participants in both groups were not comfortable with multi-tasking and felt they should handle a task at a time. When asked why 56 respondents stated that work efficiency reduces with multi-tasking as there is divided attention. The participants also shunned multi-tasking for fear of poor rating at work. The second question in the questionnaire that asked about the most challenging tasks ever handled by the participants in their role as personal assistants elicited mixed reactions. Each member had experienced different challenges they termed as challenging, with the challenging aspect being subjective and varied from one person to another. What seemed challenging to one participant was not challenging to another.

From the first question in the questionnaire that asked, ‘When starting work for a new client, what are a few things you like to do to get to know the person and make them feel comfortable with you around?’, I noticed a striking resemblance in the responses of participants from group B. Forty of them wanted a new client to feel as comfortable as possible being around them. This was a coincidence since it must be noted that the questionnaire was given and answered in private.


To arrive at the sample size of 278 used in this research, I used a formula called the Cochran Formula. I selected the sample size from 1000 individuals spread across various organizations spanning different retail, manufacturing, and banking industries. However, most participants came from the finance industry as they were more willing to participate in the research. The population I was studying in this research is regarded as small hence the reason for using Cochran Formula. The Cochran formula is:

N0= Z2PQ/e2


The desired precision level, also known as the margin of error, is e.

The approximate proportion of the population that is attributed to this research is P

Q = 1 – P

This equation that was used in reaching the Cochran formula is:

n = n/ [ 1 + {(n0 – 1)/ N}]

Where nis the recommended sample size in Cochran, the population size is N, and the new adjusted sample size is n. Hence I calculated

385 / [ 1 + {384/ 1000}] = 278 participants in the research which is relatively small.

In this paper, we analyze a Human Resource department summary starting with the departmental function, which is selection, recruitment, negotiation for employees’ benefits and administering them, and retention. Some of these benefits frequently discussed in this research, include Employee assistance programs, dental life, vision, health insurance, and employee compensation. The H.R. department also coordinates tea building training for senior management and middle management personnel for consideration of optional direction the organization can take to develop in the future. In the budget goals, the H.R. department should come up with, say, a 5 year budget that ensures employees’ skillsets are enough to deal with the ever-evolving technological topography in the 21st century coupled with the progress of the business marketplace in today’s world. The budget goals should also include employees’ benefits package that states all the benefits the employees are entitled to and distributed across the financial year.

The Human Resource programs entail the management of the employment system in the organization, which includes employee counseling and training, recruiting process, administering benefits, employee compensation, personnel recordkeeping, legislation compliance, and performance appraisals. Some of the performance objectives of H.R. departments. Although they differ from one organization to another, they include re-certification of full-time staff for First Aid and CPR and recruiting and hiring new staff as fast as possible. The H.R. department is also tasked with conducting administrative audits and investigations

The rationale for the Answers

Part A: The person specification is necessary for shortlisting of the applicants, and having the key skills in bullet points allows you to match it with applicants’ set of skills. It saves time, and the right candidate is selected.

Part B: the first job applicant is selected because he has the most matched set of skills with P.A.’s responsibilities required to be fulfilled at the organization.

Part C: Each of the six questions aims to assess the response of the applicant in different situations that are likely to determine if the applicant can handle the job pressure or not and whether he has suitable set of skills.

Critical Evaluation of the use of a Person Specification

Companies that understand the relevance of person specification in the recruitment and selection process reap important benefits in short and medium, and long terms. The purpose of using person specification is to take into consideration the skills, qualifications and experience a candidate must possess to apply for a certain position. Its use allows the companies to recruit individuals who are the most appropriate individuals for the position. Not only is this, but the person specification also allows a company to conduct competency-based interviews where the most eligible candidate is selected. Following are the benefits of using person specification and competency-based interviews:

Cost reduction: Cost reduction is always one of the goals of any entrepreneur. The use of the appropriate tools and procedures means that HRM spends less time and effort in filling vacancies. Analysts are able to manage the routine better and increase their productivity (Collings et al., 2018). By adding each small gain, the difference becomes even more visible.

Strengthening the business strategy: The hiring of people needs to be aligned with the guidelines outlined in the company’s strategic planning (Chungyalpa & Karishma, 2016). This involves issues such as cultural fit, skills, competencies, and technical capabilities of the teams that are formed. A well-structured recruitment and selection process based on personal specification can find the right professionals for the challenges that the organization set out to overcome.

Strengthening the organizational culture: Characteristics such as salary and practice area are no longer the main decision points, and the organizational culture has gained an increasing weight. All of this starts with the selection, which needs to be more careful and adopt specific methodologies to provide this differential. Turnover reduction: In an era where young people tend not to stay in the same company for many years, retention has become one of HRM’s greatest difficulties. The best way to mitigate the turnover problem is to tackle one of the root causes: selection failure.


In conclusion, the need for Human Resource practices cannot be brushed off in the modern business world. Through this research paper, we have delved into the roles and responsibilities played by the Human Resource department in the performance of organizations. A company could be having great products, but unless its staff rally behind it supportively, it is less likely to be successful. The new competitive advantage in most of today’s organizations has a satisfied workforce as it assures the best performance from the employees, which reflects on the organization’s performance. Generating more Human Resource professionals has come as a requirement in most business sectors, especially industrial sectors. It is worth noting that with the increasing knowledge work, the role of the H.R. is changing with time, with managers spending most of their time in communications, making decisions, and analysis. For sustainable business and financial stability of an organization, it is important that H.R. departments enhance tax benefits and funds opportunities. H.R. professionals need to assume more responsibility beyond just employees but also focus on the need to understand and aid in driving the economic environment and strategic direction of the organization.


I recommend that H.R. departments seek the involvement of donors to improve their operations. Beyond that, the organizations and groups providing donations to H.R. department should focus beyond the monetary assistance. The capabilities of H.R. can be built by active knowledge utilization. For instance, as part of Corporate Social Responsibility, a donor can help the H.R. department in the development and operationalization of the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), a contribution that goes a long way in assisting the H.R. department increase its efficiency. Secondly, I would also recommend that organizations build the institutional capacity to provide H.R. services. This can be done by establishing national and regional frameworks to develop infrastructure and services addressing a wide array of common needs, which includes training, compensation, financial management, and governance, all in support of the capacity building of H.R. departments.

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Developing talent from within the organization is another essential recommendation that will be of great help to H.R. departments. Most companies struggle to find the right personnel skilled and matching specific roles and often overlook the potential that exists within their organization. Companies need to target employees who bear leadership potential by identifying them early and honing their skills. The company should then provide them with a vision for how they can make a contribution to the organization and their personal career goals. This can be done by providing such employees with mentors, training opportunities to acquire new skills or update their skills. Implementation of wellness initiatives is another strategy I would recommend. Promoting employee wellness plays a critical role in the organization’s financial health, considering the rising costs of healthcare. A workforce that is down due to illnesses greatly affectss the organization’s productivity, hence the need to implement a a holistic wellness program as mitigation efforts against the risks of premiums escalation.

Technology and analytics continue to increase the operations in many organizations in the world. It is a new development that is gaining traction and is becoming unavoidable in today’s business world, lest you be left behind. The senior management in organizations needs to relook at the tremendous opportunities of integrating a broad range of experiences in the organization, such as leveraging a Human Capital Management System (HCM). Most Human Resource (H.R.) departments use software for the management of payroll, platforms that often have inadequacies with regards to tax forms management, OSHA logs, employee records, and other information. Embracing the latest technology and analytics will provide security to the portal. It will be possible to manage time-off requests amongst other criteria, and the personal information records will be more visible.


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Chungyalpa, W., & Karishma, T. (2016). Best practices and emerging trends in recruitment and selection. Journal of Entrepreneurship & Organization Management5(2), 1-5.

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Martin, G. C. (2014). The Effects of Cultural Diversity in the Workplace. Journal of Diversity Management, 9(2), 89-93.

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