Essay on Environmental Impact Assessment Report for a Surface Coating Business

Published: 2021/12/16
Number of words: 2625


Coat is composed of pigment (the color), resin and/or binder (which carry the pigment), a solvent (which aids in the painting), and a drier (which dries the paint). Plastics compounds will be used in vinyl and acrylic paints as well as oil-based paints. Formaldehyde, arsenic, thinners, and foamers are a few examples.

Pigment, resin, solvent, and additives are all components of paint.

Pigment is used to add color, conceal imperfections, and reduce glare. Typically, pigments are split into two categories: primary and secondary. Pigments such as titanium dioxide (white), chrome green oxide, yellow and red iron oxides, and others are included in a category called “Prime Pigments.” The ‘Extender Pigments’ category comprises Calcite (Calcium Carbonate), Talc (Magnesium Silicate), Mica, Barytes (Barium Sulphate), and others (Stewart, 2012).

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To retain pigment particles together and give them adherence to the painted surface, resin is used as a binder. For the most part, acrylic emulsion polymers are the binder of choice for waterborne paints. Varying sorts and pairings are available. Monomers like methyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate are the basis for common acrylic polymer types. Cheaper paints have recently been defined with PVA binders. There are several varieties of solvent-based resins. Alkyd resins, which are commonly used in enamel paints, are the most prevalent solvent-based resins. For example, urethane alkyds are frequently used in transparent polishes due to their excellent transparency. Epoxy, urethane, polysiloxane, and moisture-cured urethane are just a few of the coating resins available for use as protective coatings.

In order to function as a vehicle for the pigments and resin, the solvent might be organic (like Mineral Tarps) or water-based.

Additives – to improve specific qualities like brushing ease, mold tolerance, scratch resistance, drying and sag resistance. Additives are used.

In reality, paint is much more than simply the color of anything; it’s a whole substance that may be used as a liquid and then dried in a number of ways to become a solid.

We paint for the following reasons:

  • Decorative elements
  • Security
  • Identifying information
  • Hygienic measures

Environmental Issues

For last 30 years, the paint industry has been successful in lowering environmental consequences by removing mercury and minimizing lead and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in paint. The fact that latex coatings have seen huge progress in efficiency over oil-based paints has helped these ecologically friendly paints gain market share. Along with lowering paint’s dangers, many merchants and manufacturers educate customers on how much paint they need for a project and how much is left over (Vidal, Alberola-Borràs, Gómez-Cordón, Moliner, Ortega, & Verdejo, 2017).

However, domestic customers and painting contractors still create large amounts of residual paint, and this paint poses an environmental risk if it is incorrectly disposed of. It is dangerous to dispose of oil-based paints since they contain organic solvents and are flammable. However, certain latex paints include solvents, biocides, and other potentially harmful ingredients, despite the fact that latex paint is generally not considered a hazardous substance. Due to their potential to lead to leachate, aqueous paints are frequently prohibited from landfills. Contaminated groundwater and fish and other aquatic life can be harmed by improperly discarded paint. Using leftover paint as an input materials alternative in the paint manufacturing process, or for other useful purposes, can reduce environmental impacts connected with the exploitation, manufacturing and end-of-life management phases of the life cycle significantly from a life-cycle perspective (Paiano, Gallucci, Pontrandolfo, Lagioia, Piccinno, & Lacalamita, 2021). Another way to decrease paint’s environmental impact is to increase recycling rates for steel and plastic paint barrels.


Paint and paint fumes can induce headaches, allergy, asthmatic responses, and irritation of skin, eyes, and airways, as well as significant stress on critical organs such as the heart, when exposed for an extended period of time or at high levels.

According to the WHO, those who deal with or are often exposed to paint have a 20-40% higher risk of developing certain forms of cancer (particularly lung cancer), while experts believe there is also a danger of neurological impairment (Burghardt, & Pashkevich, 2018).

During the drying process after the coating has been applied, paints emit a large amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In a normal paint composition, everything save the solids is discharged into the atmosphere.

VOCs have a role in ozone production after they reach the atmosphere. The most harmful part of the pollution known as smog is ozone, which is created when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sunlight combine with the oxygen in the atmosphere. Even at extremely low quantities, ozone damages lung tissue. Preventing the development of high ozone levels through reducing paint’s volatile organic compound (VOC) content and the circumstances around it (van der Leij, 2015).

When lead paint is disrupted or destroyed, it becomes an issue. The presence of well-preserved lead-free paint on top of paint in good condition does not pose a hazard in and of itself. It’s also possible that lead may be dangerous if it’s on objects like windows and doors that are exposed to abrasion or collision. It could also be on handrails, which youngsters may gnaw on. Lead-based paint waste is a common cause of high levels of lead in topsoil in older homes.

Window frames, entrances, baseboards, bathroom and kitchen cabinets, external walls, eaves, metallic materials and fascias are the most likely places to find lead-based paint. Interior walls, ceiling, and places painted with enamel might also have it. Lead is included in both the pink and red primers, so you should use caution while working on any surface that has previously been painted with any of these colors. Paint’s major environmental effect comes from the manufacturer of the parts, not from the production of the final product.

Titanium Dioxide

The production of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) has the biggest impact on the environment.

  • Possesses an excessive amount of embodied energy
  • Pollutants during manufacturing, such as CO2, N2O, SO2, NOx, CH4, and VOCs (relying on the procedure).
  • The production process generates a variety of waste streams, including spent acid and metal sulfates, each of which has an influence on the environment. Several EU regulations are aimed at reducing and eliminating the pollution that is the result of their implementation.
  • Limited resources are used to make raw materials.

Color pigments

Colored pigments have a variety of environmental repercussions, although they’re not as severe as those of Titanium Dioxide. Though “natural” and “man-made” colors exist, it’s important to remember that not all “natural” pigments have a smaller impact than synthetic ones. It is suggested that specifiers carefully analyze the manufacturer’s claims.

VOCs and Ozone

Human-produced ozone is both a pollutant and a component of smog. Nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) combine in the presence of sunlight in the atmosphere, forming ozone.

However, other compounds typically present in paint have been connected to major health and environmental concerns, even though lead has been prohibited from usage in paint for years.

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other chemicals included in most paints and stains generate hazardous vapors that can persist for a long time inside. Some VOCs contribute to the destruction of the ozone layer, while others have been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. Propane sulfone, a well-known carcinogen found in many paints, is one of the compounds related to sickness (Luo, Corey, Propper, Collins, Komorniczak, Davis, & Lum, 2011). The most common routes of poisoning from paints and stains’ compounds are the lungs and skin. The best part is that consumers now have more options when it comes to low- or no-VOC paints and stains.

In order to minimize long-term exposure to potentially hazardous chemicals, exclusively utilize them in well-ventilated places. When a room has just been painted, keep youngsters out of it until the paint smell has gone away.

Methods of reducing pollution

Change products: Refrain from using coating mixes that contain heavy metals including chromium, lead, and mercury Mercury-containing coatings meant to kill germs can be replaced with non-hazardous biocides (Kim, Park, Hwang, & Park, 2010).

Repaint surfaces with new coatings, such as more durable solids, aqueous coatings, powder coatings, or UV-curable finishes.

Reduce emissions at the source: Cover tanks while blending, stirring, and waiting for the paint or coating to be transferred into containers.

Covering tanks helps to keep vapors from escaping.

Avoid spillage by securing and covering all goods prior to moving them.

Change cleaning procedures: Require employees to follow a “clean as you go” approach to help save money on solvents while cleaning up tough stains.

Instead of using solvents to clean tanks that can be done manually, use a wiper or squeegee.

To clean tanks, using a high-pressure spray hose. As a result, less solvent is used.

Recycle any cleaning solution or solvent that has been used previously. If you want to start with a filthy cleaning solution, go ahead and do so. After that, use a fresh solvent to finish the job.

Use water-based cleansers, which have minimal levels of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Minimize the need to clean equipment between batches by designating it for a single item or a group of goods that are all the same color.

Recycle materials: Recycle pigment grinding dust collected in a baghouse.

Get customers to join in or set up an unwanted paint exchange program so the paint may be reprocessed into new goods.

New goods can be created by reworking or blending off-spec components.

Minimize or discard toxic emissions: Use a baghouse to trap dust and minimize airborne contaminants emissions.

Rather than using dried pigments, try using a slurry or paste form of them.

Instead of using a ballmill, grind or mix your components with sandmills. The efficiency of sandmills is higher, and the amount of solvent required for cleanup is lower.

Legislative requirements and compliance

When using a powder coating booth, a technician must confirm that it is built, assembled, and carried out in compliance with the AS/NZS 3754 — 1990 Standard for secure application of paints and coatings by electrostatic spraying (Dunmade, 2012). The powder coating booth must also have an efficacious mechanical ventilation and dust collection mechanism that is working to prevent observable powder from escaping the powder coating booth; all air from the powder coating booth must pass through this system.

There must be an operator to guarantee that every location on the property in which a pollution-causing chemical is used or maintained inside a compound that — has acid-proof walls and an acid-proof floor; and can contain 110 percent of the volume of the biggest metal coating(Yacout, & El-Zahhar, 2018).

One-hundred percent (110 percent) of all the tanks connected together; and not less than one-quarter of all the tanks combined inside a compound.

When operating a metal coating treatment facility, an operator must make certain that storm water does not reach the area around the facility’s metal coating treatment tanks, and that area is constructed such that liquids cannot overflow or discharge from the facility.

Part V of the Act mandates that operator’s discard of solid waste in a landfill or waste treatment facility.

Air quality and noise

Car owners who park their automobiles on or near the premises may be exposed to paint fallout from spray painting and powder coating activities due to complaints about solvent smells and paint particle or powder overspray. Spray painting causes odor problems, whereas powder coating causes particle problems.

Surface coating noise pollution comprises cutting, grinding, and hammering noises, as well as noise from compressors, fans, and pumps. In terms of noise generation, it’s better to keep operations in facilities and to keep equipment like exhaust fans and compressors in structures (where they’ll be soundproofed).

Environmental Protection Agency guidelines on assessment distances for efficient management of air quality and noise propose assessment distances among sensitive land uses1 and operations that may produce noise, odor or harmful emissions to the atmosphere.

In order to minimize overspray and stray emissions, spray booths must be equipped with a powder recovery system. It’s important to keep in mind, however, that a good powder coating spray booth, along with appropriately sized chimneys (from within vented is desirable), will only be beneficial if all powder coating is done inside of it. The booth also needs to meet all requirements laid out in the framework, Spray painting activities, and control of air and noise emissions. A chimney that ends at least three meters above the top structure within a 30-meter radius must be used to funnel emissions from the spray painting booth (Houshamand, Disfani, Dias, Oates, & Arulrajah, 2013). The discharge must be vertical and unhindered by a rain guard of the conical type. The exhaust velocity must be at least 10 meters per second.

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Any air or other gases pushed mechanically that include fine particles utilized in a coating process must be passed through a fabric filter (including cartridge filter) before being discharged into the atmosphere in order to limit powder coating system emissions.


The best advice for making paint more user-friendly is:

  • Choose a water-based paint with a low titanium oxide concentration and a little amount of binder as your painting medium.
  • To reduce your exposure to organic solvents, use paints with low to moderate concentrations – however this is becoming simpler owing to new laws.
  • If ingredient lists are accessible, further decrease health risks by studying them carefully and comparing compounds to databases of known poisons.
  • Assuming that the producer does not want to divulge the contents, it may be best to avoid that product entirely if it does not have any ingredients listed on the label.
  • Renovations and maintenance work that disturbs old paint must be done with caution so that no one in the household is exposed to lead remains.


Burghardt, T. E., & Pashkevich, A. (2018). Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from road marking paints. Atmospheric Environment193, 153-157.

Dunmade, I. S. (2012). Recycle or dispose off? Lifecycle environmental sustainability assessment of paint recycling process. Resources and Environment2(6), 291-296.

Houshamand, A., Disfani, M. M., Dias, R., Oates, G., & Arulrajah, A. (2013). End‐of‐Life Options for Waste Paint In Australia. Melbourne: Swinburne University of Technology, 72.

Kim, J., Park, K., Hwang, Y., & Park, I. (2010). Sustainable manufacturing: a case study of the forklift painting process. International Journal of Production Research48(10), 3061-3078.

Luo, D., Corey, R., Propper, R., Collins, J., Komorniczak, A., Davis, M., … & Lum, S. (2011). Comprehensive environmental impact assessment of exempt volatile organic compounds in California. Environmental Science & Policy14(6), 585-593.

Paiano, A., Gallucci, T., Pontrandolfo, A., Lagioia, G., Piccinno, P., & Lacalamita, A. (2021). Sustainable options for paints through a life cycle assessment method. Journal of Cleaner Production295, 126464.

Stewart, I. (2012). The Human and Environmental Impact of the Radium Dial-Painting Industry.

van der Leij, H. C. (2015). The environmental impact of paint products and window frames (internship report) (Master’s thesis).

Vidal, R., Alberola-Borràs, J. A., Gómez-Cordón, J., Moliner, E., Ortega, A., & Verdejo, E. (2017). LCA to evaluate the environmental impact for chemical pre-treatment in plastics metallization. Journal of Polymers and the Environment25(4), 961-972.

Yacout, D., & El-Zahhar, M. A. (2018). Environmental impact assessment of paints production in Egypt. In Proceedings—4th international conference of biotechnology, environment and engineering sciences ICBE (pp. 60-65).

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