Essay on Economic Systems
Number of words: 776
An economic system is composed of different but interrelated aspects that create an economic structure (Hayek, McWilliams & Churchill). Every society has an economic system; however, some communities have a similar system. The economic system is essential in a society because it addresses the needs and scarcity. A complex system of economy entails all means of production. Most societies have four basic economic systems, i.e., traditional economy, command economy, a pure market economy, and mixed economy. A command economy benefits society by addressing some important services such as health, however, it has a large bureaucracy that discourages new ideas.
A pure command economy is a well-organized economy system with a central institution that controls the means of production. The governing body is usually the central dominant that determines what, who, how and means of production. The demands and supply of goods and services are predetermined through statistical analysis (Hayek, McWilliams & Churchill). Private ownership is discouraged in this system. command economy is advantegous since there minimal chance of an overproduction crisis. Secondly, there is little wastage of resources and high savings. Scholars argue that the governing body can respond quickly to threats that might arise, such as military and economic threats. An example is a soviet response to communism in USSR. However, its disadvantages include limited motivation to work hard, and large bureaucracy results in little or no flexibility (Corporate Finance Institute, 2021). Individual and unique ideas are not rewarded, which also results in stagnant markets.
A Pure market economy comprises a free market where individuals and businesses bring together the buyers and sellers. Contrary to a command economy, a market economy comprises a decentralized in terms of decision making and structure. Most of the world’s economies are decentralized; they include the US economy. Market economy entails a large variety of products; there are also government interferences. As a result, consumers are highly satisfied, and there is the capability of gradual changes. However, fewer public facilities such as schools and healthcare are also at risk of unhealthy competition. Furthermore, it might face risks of market failure.
The traditional economy is a type of economic system that heavily relies mostly on agricultural production. Other activities include hunting and gathering. The traditional economy is the oldest system; the allocation of production and resources is based on rituals, customs, traditions, and customs by ancestors and elders(CK-Foundation, 2021). It is advantageous to society since different production and economic are determined based on gender and age. It is also stable and predictable. However, it is accompanied by low living standards, and economic progress is limited. In addition, it is criticized since it discourages new ideas and innovations.
A mixed economy entails both the characteristics of a market and command economy; hence it is sometimes referred to as a dual economic system (Corporate Finance Institute, 2021). Most modern economies are characterized by a mix of traditional, command, and free economies. In a mixed economy, some production like nuclear weapons is designated to the governing body while consumer goods and services are designated to the private sector since they can easily determine consumer needs (Hayek, McWilliams & Churchill). Although, mixed economy encounters balance challenge between state control and private sector, their equal distribution of goods and services while addressing consumer needs and wants. Also, most efficient producers are rewarded and also receive capital that can reinvest. Fourthly, it addresses the limitations in market economies like areas of nuclear weapons. However, efficient investors can disadvantage other businesses by lobbying states for tax subsidies. It can result in a monopoly of some products like nuclear.
There are four major economic systems, i.e., traditional, mixed, market, and command economy. Traditional economy mainly relies on agriculture, with ancestors and elders playing a subtle role in distributing roles. Command economy is composed of a central body governing production. It, however, does not address the consumers’ needs efficiently. The mixed economy comprises features of the three other economies . Since mixed addresses the limitations in market economies, e.g., addressing some important aspects of defense, it is the most preferred economic system. It also exhibits other characteristics of other economics; it further exhibits the advantages of other economic systems.
Corporate Finance Institute. (2021, January 30). Economic System. https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/knowledge/economics/economic-system/
Foundation, C., 2021. CK12-Foundation. [online] CK-12 Foundation. Available at: <https://flexbooks.ck12.org/user:zxbpc2rzcziwmthaz21hawwuy29t/cbook/episd-2019-2020-economics-with-emphasis-on-the-free-enterprise-system/section/1.5/primary/lesson/economic-systems/> [Accessed 21 August 2021].
Hayek, F., McWilliams, C., & Churchill, W. The economic system. Types of economic systems. Major economic systems All types of economic systems.