Physics Essay Topics

Choosing an appropriate essay topic is one of the most important but also toughest decisions that undergraduate students make while at university. Many students believe that a well-written and well-researched essay will positively contribute to their final grade. Of course, this is true; however, university essays represent a lot more than just a good grade as they enable students to guide and facilitate their own academic and professional development.

For example, a well-defined and appropriate essay topic will allow students to demonstrate that they are capable of identifying their own area of interest by using effective and specialised research tools. In addition, the ability to explore a specific idea and to manage the related research processes within a given time interval is often considered as an objective indication of the students’ capacities and strengths as future researchers.

As a result, and regardless of their discipline, it is essential for students to be aware of the current trends and attitudes in their academic field, and thus become eligible and capable of defining an effective essay research question that is suitable to their own skills and research targets. This is especially true in physics, a broad field that encompasses a wide variety of systems and scientific theories.

Physics deals with the interaction of matter and energy and attempts to understand how these interacting systems function and, eventually, to gain a greater insight regarding how the universe behaves. Therefore, the following lines present several physics essay topics that will help guide and prepare physics students for this process. For simplicity, these topics are divided into the following five categories: 1) Photonics, Lasers and Nonlinear Optics, 2) Astrophysics, 3) Solid-state physics, 4) Theoretical Physics, and 5) Electromagnetism. It should be noted that there are many more branches and sub-branches of Physics, each with each own significance and applications. Therefore, undergraduate students should not be limited by the following examples. Instead, these essay topics should act as an incentive for students to explore their options and choose an essay that adjusts to their own academic goals and incentives.


Photonics, Lasers and Nonlinear Optics Topics

With applications ranging from optical computers and ultrafast switches to DNA sequencing, consumer electronics manufacturing, the field of photonics, lasers and nonlinear optics offers physics students the opportunity to enter an exciting high tech career path. Photonics and nonlinear optics examine and utilise light behaviour and generation in different media, whereas laser (light amplification by the stimulated emission of radiation) science is the branch of optics that describes and exploits phenomena in lasers.

  • Applications of optical tweezers in nanotechnology and medicine: a literature review
  • Near Field Imaging of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
  • Investigation of metamaterials for Terahertz wave manipulation
  • Two-photon quantum interference and entanglement at various μm wavelengths
  • Ultrafast time-resolved laser spectroscopy and its application in photo-induced electron-transfer reactions in ionic liquids
  • A time integration method for nonlinear ordinary differential equations
  • Assessing translocation detection in gated nanopores

Astrophysics Essay Topics

Astrophysics is the branch of physics that seeks to understand how the universe works and explain phenomena such as the life and death of stars, black holes, gravitational anomalies, astronomy, cosmology, celestial and galactic observations, and so many others. In fact, one could simply describe this field as the study of everything beyond our planet. However, in this process of understanding the Universe, astrophysics has very important terrestrial applications as well in medicine, life-science industry, environmental monitoring, etc.

  • Investigating the nature of the brightest x-ray sources
  • Evaluating metal and dust abundances in nearby galaxies and their importance in Cosmos evolution
  • Evaluating novel methods and apparatuses for improving weather modelling and prediction for astronomical observations
  • Structure and evolution of the Cosmos: star formation and the starburst-AGN connection in local and distant galaxies
  • Theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM)
  • Utilising adaptive optics technology to identify the shape and structure of space debris

Solid-state Physics Essay Topics

Solid-state physics is the scientific field that investigates the macroscopic and microscopic properties of solids and condensed matter such as metals, semiconductors, and insulators for the development of novel technological applications. This branch of physics is often considered to be more related to chemistry than some other branches of physics. However, solid-state physics forms the theoretical basis for material physics and it is a fundamental component of modern electronics.

  • Investigating the growth and characterization of ferroelectric Lanthanum-Doped Hafnia
  • Evaluating magnetic coupling between an ultra-thin Fe-layer and an Cr-single-crystal
  • Vortices and nanostructured superconductors: a comprehensive review
  • Fate characterisation of nanodiamonds in cells using stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy
  • Nano thin film deposition: assessing secondary compounds and their effect on solar cells.
  • Evaluation of light scattering and absorption in aerosol nanowires

Theoretical Physics Essay Topics

Apart from experimental physics, students may also choose a career that focuses on the development of mathematical formalisms and computations that can help explain various natural phenomena. This physics branch is particularly demanding. However, it forms the core of modern quantitative sciences that practically facilitates the technological advancements of tomorrow.

  • Investigating singularities in quantum mechanics as a model for field theory
  • Non-minimal Higgs models and their contribution in solving outstanding problems in elementary particle physics
  • DNA barcoding: myth or distinct reality with incredible real-life applications?
  • Parton showers and Monte Carlo simulations.
  • Exploring black holes: inside the horizon of the black hole

Electromagnetism Essays

Finally, electromagnetism is the Physics branch that investigates the forces between electrically charged particles. Coils of wires, magnets, currents, and electronics are all integral components of electromagnetism in a quest to develop innovative devices such as transformers, electromagnets, motors, relays, communication and medical systems, etc.

  • Investigating quantum criticality in a magnetic insulator
  • Evaluating the excitation spectrum of Heisenberg spin ladders
  • Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO): Investigating novel coating processes to prevent damage in substrates by thermal expansion
  • Exploring the hollow cathode effect and investigating the development of novel emitters.
  • Evaluating the interactions between antimatter and ultracold atoms



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